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A Historical Perspective A. Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century B. Culture and Assessment A. Legal and Ethical Considerations A. The Concerns of the Profession Test-user qualifications Testing people with disabilities Computerized test administration, scoring, and interpretation Guidelines with respect to certain populations.
Terms to Learn Individualist culture versus collectivist culture Individualist culture: This culture is characterized by value being placed on traits such as self-reliance, autonomy, independence, uniqueness, and competitiveness. Collectivist culture: This is a culture in which value is placed on traits such as conformity, cooperation, interdependence, and striving toward group goals. Occupational Medicine, 61 4 , — Smith, P. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35 4 , — Vinall, J.
For Class Consideration Although there is a traditional distinction between an individualist culture and a collectivist culture, how meaningful is this distinction? What is the relevance of the distinction between the individualist culture and the collectivist. Class Discussion Questions Here is a list of questions that may be used to stimulate class discussion, as well as critical and generative thinking, with regard to some of the material presented in this chapter of the text.
A number of people are cited in the textbook as being influential in the development of modern-day psychological testing and assessment. Who would you nominate as the most influential, and why? What impact does culture have on the process of psychological assessment, on verbal communication, and on nonverbal communications? What experiences can students share from their personal experience? In some countries, political dissidents are silenced on the basis of psychiatric tests that indicate that they need to be hospitalized involuntarily.
Could that happen in your country? What is the role of professional organizations and other parties to the assessment industry in ensuring that such abuses do not occur? What might be the other ways in which it is possible to abuse psychological tests? Are students aware of any such abuses?
Initiate a class discussion on a scenario in which a clinician in an independent practice is treating a client whom he or she has self-referred for depression. During the course of therapy, the clinician learns that the client has recently tested positive for HIV. What action should the clinician take? Much like the CBS sitcom that preceded it, The Beverly Hillbillies, this new comedy featured a family coming from a rural environment in this case, Appalachia to California.
Bring Something to Class. Bring the following test-related reference materials to class for discussion. The Standards Bring the latest edition of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing to the class, and discuss selected topics such as the standards pertaining to professional behavior. The APA Ethical Standards Bring the latest edition of the Ethical Standards of Psychologists published by the American Psychological Association to the class, and discuss selected topics exemplifying what constitutes the ethical use of tests.
The ethical standards of another professional organization Bring to the class the latest edition of the published ethical guidelines of a specialty group within psychology or education, such as the guidelines published by the National Association of School Psychologist or those published by the Association for Counseling and Development.
Discuss sample principles from these documents, and have students relate their own experiences with these tests and the assessment process that would either be consistent or inconsistent with the samples cited. Bring Someone to Class. Invite an individual from the options listed below to speak to the class. A person who immigrated to the United States With regard to the discussion of the psychological testing at Ellis Island, ask students to identify someone who is able and willing to share his or her recollections of his or her parents or grandparents immigrating to the United States.
The instructor may wish to pre-interview this individual either in person or via a phone call to assess whether or not it would be appropriate to have this person address the class with his or her memories of immigration.
A faculty member from the History Department Invite a faculty member of the History Department in your university or a neighboring one to shed some additional light on the historical aspects of testing and assessment from antiquity to modern times. A faculty member from the Department of Ethnic Studies Invite a faculty member who teaches an ethnic studies course in your university or a neighboring one from a department that deals with ethnic studies.
A faculty member from a law school Invite a faculty member who is affiliated with your university or a law school nearby to speak to your class. A lawyer who practices civil law Invite a local, practicing attorney to share his or her experience litigating civil cases that have involved issues of psychological assessment with your class. A lawyer who practices criminal law Invite a local, practicing attorney to share his or her experience litigating criminal cases that have involved issues of psychological assessment with your class.
A special education official Invite a special education official, such as a due process hearing officer, to your class to discuss the implications of state and federal law for testing and assessment practices. Ask this person to discuss his or her firsthand experiences,. A personnel director Invite a corporate personnel director to your class to discuss the implications of recent court decisions on employment selection procedures and the field of human resources in general. The director of the office of students with disabilities Invite a university coordinator of disability concerns or the director of the office of students with disabilities to the class.
Ask the individual to discuss how the legislation and litigation discussed in the chapter relates to testing and assessment in practice. A representative from a local hospice Invite a representative from a local hospice to your class to discuss his or her perspective on the Oregon Death with Dignity Act. Ask the individual to discuss how the Oregon law corresponds to the philosophy of the hospice movement.
The coordinator of multicultural programs or bilingual education Invite a coordinator of multicultural or bilingual education at your university or a neighboring university to speak to your class, preferably one who is involved in determining the primary language of students.
Ask this individual to discuss her or his perspective on the cultural issues that may affect the psychological assessment of an individual with English as his or her second language. Ask the speaker to elaborate on other issues of verbal and nonverbal communication that he or she feels is important for psychological assessors to keep in mind while performing the assessment. What does the speaker feel about the use of translators in psychological assessment?
Role Play: Employment Interview In teams of two, have one student play the role of an employer and the other student that of a job applicant. The applicant has applied for the position of a research assistant to a professor who is very involved in the teaching and practice of psychological testing and assessment. Each of them will argue for the use of a different alternative to the interview as the tool of assessment by which they can be assessed. In other words, each job applicant will be interviewed, but he or she will use the interview to argue for the use of another tool to assess them.
For example, one student might argue that the case study approach would be a better assessment tool of his or her qualifications for the position, whereas another student might argue that behavioral observation might be the best assessment tool for his or her qualifications.
Class members who do not play a role may comprise the panel that determines which job applicant is hired. Debate Exercises All students could be given an advance notice to prepare for the following debates, and then, they could be assigned their roles on the day of the debate.
Debate: Henry Goddard: hero or villain Divide the class into three groups, and ask each group to do its own research on Henry Goddard. During class, ask one group to argue that he was a hero. Ask another group to argue that he was a villain because he did more harm than good. Ask the third group to serve as the audience for the debate and provide its own feedback and conclusions after the debate.
A member of the panel moderates the debate. All members of the pro group and the con group can contribute to the debate with their informed opinions on the matter. In the end, the panel renders its informed verdict on which group made the most compelling arguments.
A courtroom to be a spectator at a civil proceeding Visit a local courtroom to attend a trial involving a civil matter. It could be an involuntary commitment hearing or a lawsuit involving a claim of emotional distress. A local business or corporate entity Visit a local business or an organization that uses psychological tests.
Let students gain an understanding of the firsthand about psychological tests that the business uses and how they use them with specific reference to diversity issues in employment.
Critical evaluation of testing at Ellis Island Using information from the textbook as well as other sources, critically evaluate the turn-of-the-century psychological testing of immigrants at Ellis Island. In what ways could the procedures that were in place be improved?
Improvement of published standards for the usage of psychological tests Using information from the textbook as well as an original document of a professional organization such as the APA or the NASP or some other organization , develop some suggestions for improving the published standards. Have students complete the phrase with reference to a legislation that they would like to amend regarding psychological testing and assessment.
Have students read their responses aloud. Then, have them discuss those responses as a class. What qualifies someone to use psychological tests? What do students believe are the requirements necessary for one to be a qualified user of psychological tests? Is it necessary to have different qualifications for administering different types of tests? Students should be assigned the task of listing the qualification necessary to administer the tests listed below. Leach and Thomas Oakland. This article was published in the International Journal of Testing, Volume 7, Issue 1, pages 71— 88, In this article, the authors examine 31 codes of ethics in 35 countries and compare them to the ethical principles promoted by the American Psychological Association.
The assignment for each student is to choose one of the 35 countries profiled in the article. If possible, have each student select a different country. Ask the students to be prepared to represent their chosen country in a roundtable. The student may also be required to update the information found in Leach and Oakland Focusing on the timeline The inside covers of the textbook contain a historical timeline.
Each student in the class is assigned a different point on that timeline. He or she must present the point to the entire class. In a roundtable discussion, each student has a few minutes to discuss the historical events during the assigned time period. The report should make references to standardization with respect to time the Greenwich Mean Time or GMT and building and industrial materials such as those necessary for the industrial revolution, construction of machines, and mass-manufacturing.
The report should conclude with references of how those times may have helped foster standardization as a desirable element of psychological testing and assessment.
The multicultural panel on cultural differences and psychological assessment Organize a multicultural panel drawn from the faculty of the Psychology Department as well other departments. Criteria for admission to the university and admission to the university programs Divide the class into two groups of students, designated as G1 and G2.
Then, organize a panel discussion to discuss the findings of both the groups—including the common factors that emerged from the groups and the differential weight given to the various factors. Students could present their findings in the form of a written report or a class presentation. Media Resources On the Web The following are a noncomprehensive sampling of some of the material available on the Internet.
Nathaniel V. Mohatt Self-Assessment. TERM TO LEARN individualist culture versus collectivist culture individualist culture a culture in which value is placed on traits such as autonomy, self-reliance, independence, uniqueness, and competitiveness. Some relevant reference citations: Houdmont, J. Overtime and psychological well-being among Chinese office workers.
Unlimited access to the largest selection of audiobooks and textbooks aligned to school curriculum on the only app specifically designed for struggling readers, like students dealing with dyslexia, blindness or other learning differences. Psychological Testing and Assessment: An Introduction to Tests and Measurement is the standard-setting text that through seven editions has overviewed measurement in psychology with unrivaled depth, breadth, and clarity. Logically organized and lucidly written, this book acquaints readers with important historical, legal, ethical, and cultural issues, and then proceeds to provide readers with the information necessary to understand psychometric concepts such as reliability, validity, and utility. Through writing that effectively anchors abstract concepts to real-life applications--and through the use of innovative teaching tools such as "Just Think" questions and the "Everyday Psychometrics" features in the text--readers will come away with a well-rounded, working knowledge of psychometrics and the assessment enterprise in a contemporary, real world context.
Psychological testing is the administration of psychological tests. Scores are thought to reflect individual or group differences in the construct the test purports to measure. According to Anastasi and Urbina, psychological tests involve observations made on a "carefully chosen sample [emphasis authors] of an individual's behavior.
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A Historical Perspective A. Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century B. Culture and Assessment A. Legal and Ethical Considerations A. The Concerns of the Profession Test-user qualifications Testing people with disabilities Computerized test administration, scoring, and interpretation Guidelines with respect to certain populations. Terms to Learn Individualist culture versus collectivist culture Individualist culture: This culture is characterized by value being placed on traits such as self-reliance, autonomy, independence, uniqueness, and competitiveness. Collectivist culture: This is a culture in which value is placed on traits such as conformity, cooperation, interdependence, and striving toward group goals.
Testing and Assessment History - Early twentieth-century France. Psychological testing provided this methodology. The value of a test, or of any other tool of assessment, is intimately linked to the knowledge, skill, and experience Approaches to Assessment: of the assessor. Therapeutic Psychological Assessment Psychological Assessment - A collaborative approach to assessment. Dynamic Assessment for the purpose of making a psychological evaluation - Refers to an interactive approach to psychological that is accomplished through the use of tools such as assessment that usually follows a model of tests, interviews, case studies, behavioral evaluation, intervention of some sort, and evaluation. Dynamic may suggest that a psychodynamic or psychoanalytic approach to assessment is being Process of Assessment applied.
Jump to navigation. Psychological testing: History, principles, and applications 7th edition Gregory, R.
Despite the apparent widespread use of psychological tests in evaluations performed by psychologists to assist legal decision makers, there has been little critical but balanced examination of the appropriate parameters for the forensic use of such tests. The following discussion examines the nature of legal decision making, and concludes that the primary legal criterion for the adminissibility of psychological testing is relevance to the immediate legal issue or to some underlying psychological construct. Assuming that accuracy is a more consistent concern for psychologists performing such evaluations, the criticisms of various commentators are discussed. Some criticisms appear appropriate and are incorporated into a set of proposed guidelines for the use of psychological tests in forensic contexts.
Может быть, ключ связан с количеством человеческих жертв, оценочной суммой нанесенного ущерба в долларах… - Она замолчала, снова вчитываясь в текст. - Слово разница особенно важно. Главная разница между Хиросимой и Нагасаки.
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Psychology. Contents. Cohen−Swerdlik • Psychological Testing and Assessment: An Introduction to Tests and. Measurement, Seventh Edition. Front Matter. 1.Geranio M. 13.05.2021 at 08:42
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