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Laser Processing Of Materials Fundamentals Applications And Developments Pdf

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Laser ablation

This laser symposium aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and laser users and manufacturers to exchange and share their experiences on recent progress in Laser Science and Technology, in particular in the field of laser materials processing and synthesis. It also provides the chance to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, and concerns, practical challenges from nanoenergy to biomedicine.

This symposium will cover all new advances in laser-matter interaction coupled to recent applications of emerging materials. The main objective is to revisit the basic phenomena involved in the interaction of wide range of laser systems still new and efficient devices including smart optics, high and low repetition rate processing as well as high and low beam fluences. The symposium will consider recent progress in laser-assisted additive fabrication, nano-LIPSS formation, laser lift of biological materials and systems and more emerging techniques such as laser synthesis of nanoparticles in liquids, and will offer a unique opportunity for researchers from Europe and worldwide areas to discuss their results in a friendly and engaging atmosphere.

All contributions on laser interaction with hard, soft and smart materials, targeting future applications from nanoenergy to biomedicine as well as recent progress on the fundamental mechanisms are welcome. The symposium Laser Interactions with Materials: from fundamentals to applications will provide a platform to establish interdisciplinary international research collaborations between scientists working in the field of laser-matter interaction.

The symposium will consist of invited presentations by leading scientists in their respective fields of research and contributed papers for oral and poster presentations. Special emphasis will be made for presentations by young scientists presenting high quality research papers. The contributions should concern, but are not limited to the topics listed below. Amendola — Univ.

Boyd — London Brunel University, N. Feng - Univ. Pervolaraki - University of Cyprus Cyprus , J. Serna, J. Papers accepted after normal review will be published in Applied Surface Science Elsevier. Please note that being invited to submit to a special issue does not guarantee publication.

Resume : Molecular dynamics simulations have been undertaken to unravel the role of kinetics on the morphologies of medium-size nanoparticles containing a few hundred to a few thousands of atoms produced from an initially very hot sample, as typically produced upon laser ablation of metal targets. In the case of aluminum ablated in oxygen atmosphere, the role of oxidation is essential on the eventually obtained nanoparticle.

Structural analysis of the surface roughness of the nanoparticle is shown to exhibit non-monotonic dependence on the oxygen content, in agreement with experimental x-ray scattering measurements.

Ablation of an iron-gold target will also be discussed, our simulations predicting a clear tendency to form metastable shapes such as onion-ring nanoparticles. Resume : One of the biggest challenge that will face optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices is the necessity to provide a reliable alternative to transparent conducting oxide TCO and especially to Indium Thin Oxide ITO.

We recently published a study proposing a method to produce transparent conductive electrodes only based on carbon materials. Those thin films own very interesting properties in kindship with diamond, like high transparency in the visible range, chemical inertness and biocompatibility.

In addition, the DLC is also a perfect electrical insulator. This particularity has a great interest to perform, in a second step, UV laser annealing over the DLC surface. The aim is to break the existing diamond bindings sp3 hybridization on the surface of the DLC layer and allow atoms to be reorganized in graphitic bindings sp2 hybridization.

We demonstrate that the increase of atomic graphitic bindings leads to an increase of the surface conductivity.

According to adapted annealing parameters, the surface conductivity reaches values comparable to typical ITO performances.

Regarding the transparency of the annealed layers, we show that the laser treatments only sparsely affects the DLC transparency. In this work, we also evaluate the performances of the conductive carbon layers and their use as transparent electronic components resistor, capacitor and transistor.

Moreover, this full laser-based process offers the advantage of being compatible with the standard microelectronic technological steps. Resume : Abstract: The ligand shell structure of the nanocluster1, Ag44 4-MBA 30 MBA: mercaptobenzoic acid, in the thiolate form was modified in a precise, site-specific manner. While the molecular identity and integrity of nanoclusters post laser irradiation were confirmed by ESI MS, time-dependent SERS spectra and computational studies suggest that the phenomenon of decarboxylation is limited to the 4-MBA ligands facing the NP surface.

This creates modified Ag44 clusters, with 4-MBA ligands on one side and TP ligands on the other, giving them a two-faced Janus ligand structure. The ligand distribution of such clusters gets equilibrated in solution. We show that such selective transformation can be used to create molecular patterns. Janus clusters may be important in chemistry at biphasic interfaces. Reference: 1 Chakraborty, I.

The Journal of Physical Chemistry C , 28 , Resume : In this presentation, we will report the results of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations aimed at revealing the key processes contributing to the formation of nanoparticles and generation of periodic surface structures in pulsed laser ablation in liquids.

In particular, the dependence of the nanoparticle formation on laser pulse duration and composition of the irradiated target will be considered, with a focus on the relative roles of 1 nucleation and growth in the cavitation bubble and 2 hydrodynamic instabilities at the interface between ablation plume and superheated liquid environment leading to the direct generation of large nanoparticles. The effect of the liquid environment on the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures will also be discussed based on the results of large-scale atomistic simulations performed for Cr targets irradiated in vacuum and water environment.

The shapes of the surface structures generated in the ablative regime will be compared to the results of experiments performed for the same systems and the same irradiation conditions. Resume : In this presentation, studies on ultrafast laser surface processing of titanium has been conducted to induce nanostructured surface in micro-textured titanium. Surface texturing and nanostructuring has been achieved by ablation of surface using ultrafast ns or fs laser. The detailed investigations undertaken in the present study include surface texturing and nano-structuring of Ti6Al4V using ArF laser and femto second laser, which ablated the materials from the surface of polished Ti6Al4V for topographical and microstructural modification.

The effect of laser ablation on surface topography, microstructure, composition and phases has been discussed in details. In addition, the wear resistance and corrosion resistance properties of the laser ablated surface have also been discussed. Femtosecond laser processing leads to the development of nanostructured surface with the average grain size of nm with the presence of residual compressive stress on the surface.

The optimum process parameters for the formation of textured surface by KrF laser and nanostructured surface by femtosecond laser has been derived. Resume : Interaction of intense ultrashort laser pulses with solids creates highly excited non-equilibrium states of matter with high electron temperatures, but still at solid state density. Relaxation of such an excited system may lead to significant changes in the lattice structure of the irradiated target.

Understanding such processes is necessary, e. Hybrid multi-scale modeling of target evolution after irradiation is performed. The model takes into account photoabsorption and non-equilibrium electron cascading occurring on a fs timescale, thermal diffusion and electron-phonon energy exchange on a ps timescale and lattice dynamics up to ns timescale.

Different photon energies result in qualitatively different absorbed energy profiles by the time of thermalization of the electronic system. The effects of such a difference on the hydrodynamic evolution and eventual damage of Ru are discussed.

Details of processes such as melting, cavitation, ablation and recrystallization are revealed for selected photon energies. The results show good qualitative agreement with the experimental observations on Ru ablation. Resume : The processing of laser-induced periodic surface structures LIPSS, ripples on metals and semiconductors in ambient air is usually accompanied by superficial oxidation effects — a fact that is widely neglected in the current literature. Alternative routes of electrochemical and thermal oxidation allow to qualify the relevance of superficial oxidation effects on the tribological performance in oil lubricated reciprocating sliding tribological tests RSTT.

It is revealed that the fs-laser processing of near-wavelength sized LIPSS on metals leads to the formation of a few hundreds of nanometers thick graded oxide layers, consisting mainly of amorphous oxides. Regardless of reduced hardness and limited thickness, this nanostructured surface layer efficiently prevents a direct metal-to-metal contact in the RSTT and may also act as an anchor layer for specific wear-reducing additives contained in the used engine oil.

Resume : The laser interaction with transparent materials using Gaussian beams is already well investigated. The need for speed of the fabrication process especially while cutting transparent materials creates a necessity to analyse various beam shapes and it is believed that the most beneficial of them would be the ones that have extended focus. The use of the Bessel beams that are nondiffractive enables to achieve that.

In this study we analyse vector Bessel beam interaction with transparent material and foresee application to the microfabrication processes. The nondiffractive ring intensity profile enables to generate larger diameter beam without the need of altering the cone angle. We generate an extended void having high aspect ratio inside the transparent material with vector Bessel beams. We have also used the individual polarization components to observe the double void generation with a single shot.

Additionally to the void formation we were able to generate microcracks by just changing the pulse duration. We have noticed a distinct pattern for crack formation in glass that is perpendicular to the two voids fabricated by the single pulse of one polarization of the vector Bessel beam. The damage thresholds for different vector Bessel beams and their polarization components are analysed and the proposals for their applications are formulated.

Resume : Gold nanoparticles can behave as ideal nanosources of heat remotely controllable by laser irradiation in the visible-nearIR range, thanks to a plasmon resonance effect enhancing optical absorption. This scheme opens the path for a large variety of investigations at small scales in various fields of science.

This research thematics is named thermoplasmonics and currently encompasses applications such as photothermal cancer therapy, drug and gene delivery, single cell thermal biology, nanochemistry, heat-assisted magnetic recording, photothermal imaging, etc.

In this presentation, after shortly presenting this field of research, I will focus on three recent works conducted at the Institut Fresnel, respectively in physics, chemistry and cell biology.

In a first part, I will show how gold nanoparticle laser-heating revealed the ability to superheat a fluid on the microscale at ambient pressure, opening the path for high-temperature applications in chemistry. This latter application will be the topic of the second part of the talk, where gold nanoparticle heating is demonstrated to provide a powerful means to conduct hydrothermal chemistry at ambient pressure in an open medium, a new concept in chemistry.

The last part will focus on the recent and rising field of research named single cell thermal biology. We developed a technique to measure temperature in living cells. This technique was used to control and monitor the heat-shock response at the level of single cells in cutlure, enabling a much faster dynamics compared to regular resistive heating of the sample. The contact realization requires an essential initial step consisting in the opening of the dielectric layers, usually performed by laser ablation as it enables high throughputs and can be reliably integrated into production lines.

Nevertheless, the optimization of this preparative step is critical as it conditions the success of the electroless Ni deposition performed just after. Previous studies have underlined the importance to precisely control the laser to limit damages Si emitter degradation … and maintain an emitter surface as blank as possible. So, the modifications induced at the surface and deeper after laser opening are a critical point to understand, for both the polished rear one and the textured front one.

To explore the laser parameter influence and optimize the operating conditions, we varied the peak fluence, spacing between two centers of the beam with different overlapping using a multi-technique approach combining imaging CLSM, SEM , chemical EDS, XPS , electrical four probe measurements and optical ellipsometry analyses.

We have been able to propose an ablation mechanism as well as the best conditions to implement the laser opening and be favorable for a controlled Pd activation and selective Ni plating. Resume : Integrated electronics, photonics an optoelectronics need full control of lattice reconstruction processes in silicon nanostructures at the level of nanoscale.

Light can be a powerful tool to trigger and control opto-thermal effects in resonant nanostructures. Here we propose a new computational approach to light-matter interactions in silicon nanopillars, which simulates heat generation and propagation dynamics occurring in continuous wave laser processing over a wide temporal range from 1 fs to about 25 hours. We demonstrate that a rational design of the nanostructure aspect ratio, type of substrate, laser irradiation time and wavelength enables amorphous-to-crystalline transformations to take place with a precise, sub-wavelength spatial localization.

In particular, we show that visible light can be exploited to selectively crystallize internal region of the pillars, which is not possible by conventional treatments. A detailed study on lattice reconstruction dynamics reveals that local heating drives the formation of secondary antennas embedded into the pillars. This approach can be easily extended to many types of nanostructured materials and interfaces, offering a unique computational tool for many applications involving opto-thermal processes fabrication, data storage, sensing, catalysis, resonant laser printing, opto-thermal therapy etc….

Resume : Nanocomposite materials have attracted continuously increasing interest due to numerous applications in photonics, optoelectronics, security and medicine.

Laser-based fabrication of such materials is particularly promising since it allows unique control possibilities over the resulting optical properties of the films [1,2]. Despite numerous applications, the growth mechanism of NPs in porous matrixes is still under discussion.

Laser interactions with materials: from fundamentals to applications

Part 2 Laser cutting and machining: Laser fusion cutting of difficult materials; Laser-assisted glass cleaving; Laser dicing of silicon and electronics substrates; Laser machining of carbon fibre-reinforced plastic composites. Part 3 Laser welding: Understanding and improving process control in pulsed and continuous wave laser welding; Physical mechanisms controlling keyhole and melt pool dynamics during laser welding; Laser microspot welding in electronics production; Enhancing laser welding capabilities by hybridization or combination with other processes. Part 4 Laser annealing and hardening: Laser transformation hardening of steel; Pulsed laser annealing technology for nanoscale fabrication of silicon-based devices in semiconductors. Part 5 Surface treatment, coating and materials deposition using lasers: The laser induced forward transfer LIFT technique for micro-printing; Production of biomaterial coatings by laser-assisted processes; Thick metallic coatings by coaxial and side laser cladding: Processing and properties. Part 6 Laser rapid manufacturing and net-shape engineering: Laser direct metal deposition: Theory and applications in manufacturing and maintenance; Laser consolidation: A rapid manufacturing process for making net-shape functional components; Advances in laser-induced plastic deformation processes. Part 8 Mathematical modelling and control of laser processes: Multiphysics modelling laser solid freeform fabrication techniques; Process control of laser materials processing. Because of its capacity for continuous development and flexibility of use, the laser has become a mainstream manufacturing tool in many industrial sectors.


Laser materials processing has made tremendous progress and is now at the forefront of Fundamentals, Applications and Developments ISBN ​; Digitally watermarked, DRM-free; Included format: PDF; ebooks can be​.


Laser Processing of Materials

Laser ablation or photoablation is the process of removing material from a solid or occasionally liquid surface by irradiating it with a laser beam. At low laser flux, the material is heated by the absorbed laser energy and evaporates or sublimates. At high laser flux, the material is typically converted to a plasma.

Laser interactions with materials: from fundamentals to applications

Proceedings of LAMP

The unique characteristics of ultrafast lasers have rapidly revolutionized materials processing after their first demonstration in The ultrashort pulse width of the laser suppresses heat diffusion to the surroundings of the processed region, which minimizes the formation of a heat-affected zone and thereby enables ultrahigh precision micro- and nanofabrication of various materials. In addition, the extremely high peak intensity can induce nonlinear multiphoton absorption, which extends the diversity of materials that can be processed to transparent materials such as glass. Nonlinear multiphoton absorption enables three-dimensional 3D micro- and nanofabrication by irradiation with tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses inside transparent materials. Thus, ultrafast lasers are currently widely used for both fundamental research and practical applications.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Materials as a field is most commonly represented by ceramics, metals, and polymers. While noted improvements have taken place in the area of ceramics and metals, it is the field of polymers that has experienced an explosion in progress.

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Klaudia J. 06.05.2021 at 11:50

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