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Culture Contact And Social Change In Nigeria Pdf

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Do you ever listen to a song and find yourself moved so deeply you are almost in tears? Have you ever been to a live performance that turned your worst day into your best? Have you ever heard a song that inspired you?

Collective behavior and social movements are just two of the forces driving social change , which is the change in society created through social movements as well as external factors like environmental shifts or technological innovations. Essentially, any disruptive shift in the status quo, be it intentional or random, human-caused or natural, can lead to social change. Below are some of the likely causes. Changes to technology, social institutions, population, and the environment, alone or in some combination, create change.

Social change

Social change , in sociology , the alteration of mechanisms within the social structure , characterized by changes in cultural symbols, rules of behaviour, social organizations, or value systems. Throughout the historical development of their discipline , sociologists have borrowed models of social change from other academic fields. In the late 19th century, when evolution became the predominant model for understanding biological change, ideas of social change took on an evolutionary cast, and, though other models have refined modern notions of social change, evolution persists as an underlying principle.

In the midth century, anthropologists borrowed from the linguistic theory of structuralism to elaborate an approach to social change called structural functionalism. This theory postulated the existence of certain basic institutions including kinship relations and division of labour that determine social behaviour. Because of their interrelated nature, a change in one institution will affect other institutions.

Various theoretical schools have emphasized different aspects of change. Marxist theory suggests that changes in modes of production can lead to changes in class systems, which can prompt other new forms of change or incite class conflict. A different view is conflict theory, which operates on a broad base that includes all institutions.

The focus is not only on the purely divisive aspects of conflict, because conflict, while inevitable, also brings about changes that promote social integration. Taking yet another approach, structural-functional theory emphasizes the integrating forces in society that ultimately minimize instability. Social change can evolve from a number of different sources, including contact with other societies diffusion , changes in the ecosystem which can cause the loss of natural resources or widespread disease , technological change epitomized by the Industrial Revolution , which created a new social group , the urban proletariat , and population growth and other demographic variables.

Social change is also spurred by ideological, economic, and political movements. Social change in the broadest sense is any change in social relations. Viewed this way, social change is an ever-present phenomenon in any society. A distinction is sometimes made then between processes of change within the social structure, which serve in part to maintain the structure, and processes that modify the structure societal change.

The specific meaning of social change depends first on the social entity considered. Changes in a small group may be important on the level of that group itself but negligible on the level of the larger society.

Similarly, the observation of social change depends on the time span studied; most short-term changes are negligible when examined in the long run. Small-scale and short-term changes are characteristic of human societies, because customs and norms change, new techniques and technologies are invented, environmental changes spur new adaptations , and conflicts result in redistributions of power.

This universal human potential for social change has a biological basis. It is rooted in the flexibility and adaptability of the human species—the near absence of biologically fixed action patterns instincts on the one hand and the enormous capacity for learning, symbolizing, and creating on the other hand.

The human constitution makes possible changes that are not biologically that is to say, genetically determined. Social change, in other words, is possible only by virtue of biological characteristics of the human species, but the nature of the actual changes cannot be reduced to these species traits.

Several ideas of social change have been developed in various cultures and historical periods. Three may be distinguished as the most basic: 1 the idea of decline or degeneration, or, in religious terms, the fall from an original state of grace, 2 the idea of cyclic change, a pattern of subsequent and recurring phases of growth and decline, and 3 the idea of continuous progress.

These three ideas were already prominent in Greek and Roman antiquity and have characterized Western social thought since that time. The concept of progress, however, has become the most influential idea, especially since the Enlightenment movement of the 17th and 18th centuries. Social thinkers such as Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot and the marquis de Condorcet in France and Adam Smith and John Millar in Scotland advanced theories on the progress of human knowledge and technology.

Progress was also the key idea in 19th-century theories of social evolution, and evolutionism was the common core shared by the most influential social theories of that century. This line of thought has since been disputed and disproved. The most encompassing theory of social evolution was developed by Herbert Spencer , who, unlike Comte, linked social evolution to biological evolution. Evolutionary thought also dominated the new field of social and cultural anthropology in the second half of the 19th century.

Tylor postulated an evolution of religious ideas from animism through polytheism to monotheism. He assumed that monogamy was preceded by polygamy and patrilineal descent by matrilineal descent. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels too were highly influenced by evolutionary ideas.

The Marxian distinctions between primitive communism , the Asiatic mode of production, ancient slavery , feudalism , capitalism , and future socialism may be interpreted as a list of stages in one evolutionary development although the Asiatic mode does not fit well in this scheme. The originality of the Marxian theory of social development lay in its combination of dialectics and gradualism.

Underlying this discontinuous development was the more gradual development of the forces of production technology and organization of labour. Marx was also influenced by the countercurrent of Romanticism , which was opposed to the idea of progress.

Weber rejected evolutionism by arguing that the development of Western society was quite different from that of other civilizations and therefore historically unique. The work of Durkheim, Weber, and other social theorists around the turn of the century marked a transition from evolutionism toward more static theories.

Evolutionary theories were criticized on empirical grounds—they could be refuted by a growing mass of research findings—and because of their determinism and Western-centred optimism. Theories of cyclic change that denied long-term progress gained popularity in the first half of the 20th century. Although the interest in long-term social change never disappeared, it faded into the background, especially when, from the s until the s, functionalism, emphasizing an interdependent social system, became the dominant paradigm both in anthropology and in sociology.

Neoevolutionist theories were proclaimed by several anthropologists, including Ralph Linton , Leslie A. White , Julian H. Steward , Marshall D. Sahlins, and Elman Rogers Service. These authors held to the idea of social evolution as a long-term development that is both patterned and cumulative. Unlike 19th-century evolutionism, neoevolutionism does not assume that all societies go through the same stages of development. Instead, much attention is paid to variations between societies as well as to relations of influence among them.

The latter concept has come to be known by the term acculturation. In addition, social evolution is not regarded as predetermined or inevitable but is understood in terms of probabilities. Finally, evolutionary development is not equated with progress.

Revived interest in long-term social change was sparked by attempts to explain the gaps between rich and poor countries. Some modernization theories have been criticized, however, for implying that poor countries could and should develop—or modernize—in the manner of Western societies.

Modernization theories have also been criticized for their lack of attention to international power relations, in which the richer countries dominate the poorer ones. His world systems theory , however, was attacked for empirical reasons and for its failure to account for the collapse of the Soviet Union and the communist regimes of eastern Europe and their subsequent movement toward capitalism and democracy.

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INDIGENOUS CONCEPTIONS, WORK ATTITUDES AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

Certain geographic changes sometimes produce great social change. Climate, storms, social erosion, earthquakes, floods, droughts etc. Human life is closely bound up with the geographical conditions of the earth. Human history is full of examples that flourishing civilisations fell prey to natural calamities. The distribution of population over various regions, the variations in the population densities, the agricultural production, flora and fauna, the joys and hardships—all indicate a change when a change in the physical environment occurs. What to talk of rise and fall of civilisations, even our day-to-day life—our clothes, eating material and habits, shelter design etc. Generally, changes in physical environment force migration of people in large numbers and this brings major changes in social life and cultural values also.

Wahab, S. Odunsi, O. The culture of a people is their identity as it affords them due recognition. This paper therefore is aimed at examining the causes and consequences of rapid erosion of cultural values in nigeria. Social change theory was used in this paper.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The panel discussion was followed by an open floor discussion. James Fitzsimmons U. Census Bureau moderated the session discussions. Weber stated that rural classification systems are created to help characterize how context varies across space and how spatial development patterns affect social and economic outcomes.

Top 6 Factors of Social Change – Explained!

Nigeria's national development may be assisted by utilising indigenous conceptions of work in three different ways. The development of a Nigerian work ethic, based on the positive values to be found in the conceptions of work held by different language groups in the country, is one such method, which, by emphasising the similarities in work conceptions held by differing groups, could also aid national integration. Knowledge of work conceptions can be used by management to elicit a generally favourable attitude to work.

The paper critically examined the Ekpe society in its indigenous form and nature prior the advent of Christianity, Western education and Western influence. It described the religion, social, economic and political structures of the society as progressive and dynamic. But, Ekpe in the course of the colonial period underwent a wide range of fundamental changes in their structure, roles, status and activities. The attitude of colonial agencies, the tenets of colonial enterprise — Christianity, Western education and commerce and the pursuit of these tenets as well as some activities of the societies themselves, conduced inevitably to a series of measures adopted by colonial authorities to suppress the societies in question.

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Social change

Social change , in sociology , the alteration of mechanisms within the social structure , characterized by changes in cultural symbols, rules of behaviour, social organizations, or value systems. Throughout the historical development of their discipline , sociologists have borrowed models of social change from other academic fields. In the late 19th century, when evolution became the predominant model for understanding biological change, ideas of social change took on an evolutionary cast, and, though other models have refined modern notions of social change, evolution persists as an underlying principle. In the midth century, anthropologists borrowed from the linguistic theory of structuralism to elaborate an approach to social change called structural functionalism. This theory postulated the existence of certain basic institutions including kinship relations and division of labour that determine social behaviour. Because of their interrelated nature, a change in one institution will affect other institutions. Various theoretical schools have emphasized different aspects of change.

Social change , in sociology , the alteration of mechanisms within the social structure , characterized by changes in cultural symbols, rules of behaviour, social organizations, or value systems. Throughout the historical development of their discipline , sociologists have borrowed models of social change from other academic fields. In the late 19th century, when evolution became the predominant model for understanding biological change, ideas of social change took on an evolutionary cast, and, though other models have refined modern notions of social change, evolution persists as an underlying principle. In the midth century, anthropologists borrowed from the linguistic theory of structuralism to elaborate an approach to social change called structural functionalism. This theory postulated the existence of certain basic institutions including kinship relations and division of labour that determine social behaviour. Because of their interrelated nature, a change in one institution will affect other institutions.

Can the use of communication contribute to social change and transformation? Such spaces allow people not only to be heard but also to reshape boundaries and social and cultural norms that underpin knowledge and power relations. This in turn could contribute to empowerment and social change. Thus, while mass communication and behavioral change communication are considered useful in themselves and for promoting pre-determined reforms, participatory communication may have greater potential to contribute to locally-owned reforms and sustainable change at various levels of society. Pettit, J. These approaches and processes are often not well understood, however, by mainstream development policy and practice, resulting in weak implementation. Local participation, ownership and control can allow people to reshape the spaces in which their voices find expression.

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We have seen that social change stems from natural forces and also from the intentional acts of groups of people. This section further examines these sources of social change. Much of the discussion so far has talked about population growth as a major source of social change as societies evolved from older to modern times. As just one example, the number of school-aged children reached a high point in the late s as the children of the post—World War II baby boom entered their school years. This swelling of the school-aged population had at least three important consequences.

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Causes and Consequences of Rapid Erosion of Cultural Values in a Traditional African Society

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Communication for social change and transformation

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Abstract: This paper examines social change in Nigeria between 19using the starting point to address it (University of California Press ). This is an social, political, economic and cultural changes occur repeatedly-.

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