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Wireless Sensor Networks Technology Protocols And Applications Pdf

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Wireless Sensor Networks presents the latest practical solutions to the design issues presented in wireless-sensor-network-based systems. Novel features of the text, distributed throughout, include workable solutions, demonstration systems and case studies of the design and application of wireless sensor networks WSNs based on the first-hand research and development experience of the author, and the chapters on real applications: building fire safety protection; smart home automation; and logistics resource management. Case studies and applications illustrate the practical perspectives of:.

Wireless Sensor Networks - Technology and Protocols. Wireless Sensor Networks WSNs can be defined as a self-configured and infrastructure-less wireless networks to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location or sink where the data can be observed and analysed. A sink or base station acts like an interface between users and the network. One can retrieve required information from the network by injecting queries and gathering results from the sink.

Overview of Wireless Sensor Network

Wireless Sensor Networks - Technology and Protocols. Wireless Sensor Networks WSNs can be defined as a self-configured and infrastructure-less wireless networks to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location or sink where the data can be observed and analysed. A sink or base station acts like an interface between users and the network.

One can retrieve required information from the network by injecting queries and gathering results from the sink. Typically a wireless sensor network contains hundreds of thousands of sensor nodes.

The sensor nodes can communicate among themselves using radio signals. A wireless sensor node is equipped with sensing and computing devices, radio transceivers and power components. The individual nodes in a wireless sensor network WSN are inherently resource constrained: they have limited processing speed, storage capacity, and communication bandwidth.

After the sensor nodes are deployed, they are responsible for self-organizing an appropriate network infrastructure often with multi-hop communication with them. Then the onboard sensors start collecting information of interest. The working mode of the sensor nodes may be either continuous or event driven. Global Positioning System GPS and local positioning algorithms can be used to obtain location and positioning information. These networks are sometimes more specifically referred as Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks as described in Akkaya et al.

Wireless sensor networks WSNs enable new applications and require non-conventional paradigms for protocol design due to several constraints. Owing to the requirement for low device complexity together with low energy consumption i. This motivates a huge effort in research activities, standardization process, and industrial investments on this field since the last decade Chiara et.

At present time, most of the research on WSNs has concentrated on the design of energy- and computationally efficient algorithms and protocols, and the application domain has been restricted to simple data-oriented monitoring and reporting applications Labrador et. The authors in Chen et al. Specifically, it allocates periods of inactivity for cable sensors without affecting the coverage and connectivity requirements of the network based only on local information.

In Cheng et al. The objective of the proposed network structure is to minimize delays in the data collection processes of wireless sensor networks which extends the lifetime of the network.

In Matin et al. Energy efficient communication has also been addressed in Paul et al. In Paul et al. Most of the time, the research on wireless sensor networks have considered homogeneous sensor nodes. But nowadays researchers have focused on heterogeneous sensor networks where the sensor nodes are unlike to each other in terms of their energy.

In Han et al. New network architectures with heterogeneous devices and the recent advancement in this technology eliminate the current limitations and expand the spectrum of possible applications for WSNs considerably and all these are changing very rapidly. Wireless sensor networks have gained considerable popularity due to their flexibility in solving problems in different application domains and have the potential to change our lives in many different ways.

WSNs have been successfully applied in various application domains Akyildiz et al. Military applications: Wireless sensor networks be likely an integral part of military command, control, communications, computing, intelligence, battlefield surveillance, reconnaissance and targeting systems.

Area monitoring: In area monitoring, the sensor nodes are deployed over a region where some phenomenon is to be monitored. When the sensors detect the event being monitored heat, pressure etc , the event is reported to one of the base stations, which then takes appropriate action.

Transportation: Real-time traffic information is being collected by WSNs to later feed transportation models and alert drivers of congestion and traffic problems. Environmental sensing: The term Environmental Sensor Networks has developed to cover many applications of WSNs to earth science research.

This includes sensing volcanoes, oceans, glaciers, forests etc. Some other major areas are listed below:. Structural monitoring: Wireless sensors can be utilized to monitor the movement within buildings and infrastructure such as bridges, flyovers, embankments, tunnels etc enabling Engineering practices to monitor assets remotely with out the need for costly site visits. Industrial monitoring: Wireless sensor networks have been developed for machinery condition-based maintenance CBM as they offer significant cost savings and enable new functionalities.

In wired systems, the installation of enough sensors is often limited by the cost of wiring. Agricultural sector: using a wireless network frees the farmer from the maintenance of wiring in a difficult environment.

Irrigation automation enables more efficient water use and reduces waste. There are a lot of challenges placed by the deployment of sensor networks which are a superset of those found in wireless ad hoc networks.

Sensor nodes communicate over wireless, lossy lines with no infrastructure. An additional challenge is related to the limited, usually non-renewable energy supply of the sensor nodes. In order to maximize the lifetime of the network, the protocols need to be designed from the beginning with the objective of efficient management of the energy resources Akyildiz et al. Wireless Sensor Network Design issues are mentioned in Akkaya et al.

Let us now discuss the individual design issues in greater detail. Fault Tolerance: Sensor nodes are vulnerable and frequently deployed in dangerous environment. Nodes can fail due to hardware problems or physical damage or by exhausting their energy supply.

We expect the node failures to be much higher than the one normally considered in wired or infrastructure-based wireless networks. The protocols deployed in a sensor network should be able to detect these failures as soon as possible and be robust enough to handle a relatively large number of failures while maintaining the overall functionality of the network.

This is especially relevant to the routing protocol design, which has to ensure that alternate paths are available for rerouting of the packets. Different deployment environments pose different fault tolerance requirements. Scalability: Sensor networks vary in scale from several nodes to potentially several hundred thousand.

In addition, the deployment density is also variable. For collecting high-resolution data, the node density might reach the level where a node has several thousand neighbours in their transmission range. The protocols deployed in sensor networks need to be scalable to these levels and be able to maintain adequate performance.

Production Costs: Because many deployment models consider the sensor nodes to be disposable devices, sensor networks can compete with traditional information gathering approaches only if the individual sensor nodes can be produced very cheaply. Hardware Constraints: At minimum, every sensor node needs to have a sensing unit, a processing unit, a transmission unit, and a power supply. Optionally, the nodes may have several built-in sensors or additional devices such as a localization system to enable location-aware routing.

However, every additional functionality comes with additional cost and increases the power consumption and physical size of the node. Thus, additional functionality needs to be always balanced against cost and low-power requirements. Sensor Network Topology: Although WSNs have evolved in many aspects, they continue to be networks with constrained resources in terms of energy, computing power, memory, and communications capabilities.

Of these constraints, energy consumption is of paramount importance, which is demonstrated by the large number of algorithms, techniques, and protocols that have been developed to save energy, and thereby extend the lifetime of the network. Topology Maintenance is one of the most important issues researched to reduce energy consumption in wireless sensor networks. Transmission Media: The communication between the nodes is normally implemented using radio communication over the popular ISM bands.

However, some sensor networks use optical or infrared communication, with the latter having the advantage of being robust and virtually interference free. Power Consumption: As we have already seen, many of the challenges of sensor networks revolve around the limited power resources. The size of the nodes limits the size of the battery. The software and hardware design needs to carefully consider the issues of efficient energy use.

The energy policy also depends on the application; in some applications, it might be acceptable to turn off a subset of nodes in order to conserve energy while other applications require all nodes operating simultaneously.

Structure of a Wireless Sensor Network includes different topologies for radio communications networks. A short discussion of the network topologies that apply to wireless sensor networks are outlined below:. The remote nodes are not permitted to send messages to each other.

It also allows low latency communications between the remote node and the base station. The disadvantage of such a network is that the base station must be within radio transmission range of all the individual nodes and is not as robust as other networks due to its dependency on a single node to manage the network.

A mesh network allows transmitting data to one node to other node in the network that is within its radio transmission range. This allows for what is known as multi-hop communications, that is, if a node wants to send a message to another node that is out of radio communications range, it can use an intermediate node to forward the message to the desired node.

This network topology has the advantage of redundancy and scalability. If an individual node fails, a remote node still can communicate to any other node in its range, which in turn, can forward the message to the desired location.

In addition, the range of the network is not necessarily limited by the range in between single nodes; it can simply be extended by adding more nodes to the system. Additionally, as the number of communication hops to a destination increases, the time to deliver the message also increases, especially if low power operation of the nodes is a requirement.

A hybrid between the star and mesh network provides a robust and versatile communications network, while maintaining the ability to keep the wireless sensor nodes power consumption to a minimum. In this network topology, the sensor nodes with lowest power are not enabled with the ability to forward messages. This allows for minimal power consumption to be maintained. However, other nodes on the network are enabled with multi-hop capability, allowing them to forward messages from the low power nodes to other nodes on the network.

Generally, the nodes with the multi-hop capability are higher power, and if possible, are often plugged into the electrical mains line. This is the topology implemented by the up and coming mesh networking standard known as ZigBee. A sensor node is made up of four basic components such as sensing unit, processing unit, transceiver unit and a power unit which is shown in Fig. It also has application dependent additional components such as a location finding system, a power generator and a mobilizer.

Sensing units are usually composed of two subunits: sensors and analogue to digital converters ADCs Akyildiz et al. The analogue signals produced by the sensors are converted to digital signals by the ADC, and then fed into the processing unit. The processing unit is generally associated with a small storage unit and it can manage the procedures that make the sensor node collaborate with the other nodes to carry out the assigned sensing tasks.

A transceiver unit connects the node to the network. One of the most important components of a sensor node is the power unit. Power units can be supported by a power scavenging unit such as solar cells. The other subunits, of the node are application dependent. A functional block diagram of a versatile wireless sensing node is provided in Fig.

wireless sensor networks pdf

The Journal of Applied Research and Technology JART is a bimonthly open access journal that publishes papers on innovative applications, development of new technologies and efficient solutions in engineering, computing and scientific research. JART publishes manuscripts describing original research, with significant results based on experimental, theoretical and numerical work. The journal does not charge for submission, processing, publication of manuscripts or for color reproduction of photographs. JART classifies research into the following main fields: Material Science Biomaterials, carbon, ceramics, composite, metals, polymers, thin films, functional materials and semiconductors. Computer Science Computer graphics and visualization, programming, human-computer interaction, neural networks, image processing and software engineering.

An Overview on Wireless Sensor Networks Technology and Evolution

WSN is one of active and operational subjects, although the extended care to apply it [ 1, 2 ], many levels of studies are considered like infrastructure technology, electronics, microprocessors, digital signal processors DSP, communications, battery production technology and others of power sources [ 3—6 ]. Additional subjects are involved as network management, routing, types of protocols applied. Estimating capacity of transmitted data, network lifetime, maintenance, and fault tolerance are topics of important role in studding and implementing WSN [ 7—9 ]. Infrastructure of network includes methods of how the node distributed in the range of interest RoI and sometimes accesses the exact coordinates of each node two or three dimensions. Knowing exact coordinates of nodes plays an important role especially in applications like indicating fire in a forest or a leakage in a petroleum pipe.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Sohraby and D.

IoT theater a vital role in real-time applications which is more useful in real life. Due to its small price and potential use, WSNs have shown importance in different applications over the past year. Health concerns, environmental observation, human protection, military operations, surveillance systems, etc.

Wireless Sensor Networks: Technology, Protocols, and Applications

Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless sensor network WSN refers to a group of spatially dispersed and dedicated sensors for monitoring and recording the physical conditions of the environment and organizing the collected data at a central location. WSNs measure environmental conditions like temperature, sound, pollution levels, humidity, wind, and so on. These are similar to wireless ad hoc networks in the sense that they rely on wireless connectivity and spontaneous formation of networks so that sensor data can be transported wirelessly. WSNs are spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature , sound , pressure , etc. The more modern networks are bi-directional, both collecting data from distributed sensors [2] and enabling control of sensor activity.

Initially wireless sensor networks … To browse Academia. This SpringerBrief provides a concise guide to applying wireless energy transfer techniques in traditional battery-powered sensor networks. K Abstract.

An Overview on Wireless Sensor Networks Technology and Evolution

1. Introduction

Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Monitoring, Control and Automation explores the explosive growth that has occurred in the use of wireless sensor networks in a variety of applications during the last few years. As wireless technology can reduce costs, increase productivity, and ease maintenance, the book looks at the progress in standardization efforts regarding reliability, security, performance, power consumption, and integration. Early sections of the book discuss issues such as media access control MAC , antenna design and site survey, energy harvesting, and explosion-proof design. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier. We would like to ask you for a moment of your time to fill in a short questionnaire, at the end of your visit. If you decide to participate, a new browser tab will open so you can complete the survey after you have completed your visit to this website. Thanks in advance for your time.

Wireless Sensor Networks

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William P. 11.05.2021 at 02:59

Wireless sensor networks WSNs enable new applications and require non-conventional paradigms for protocol design due to several constraints.