File Name: personality theories development growth and diversity .zip
Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals.
Motivation, management, communications, relationships - focused on yourself or others - are a lot more effective when you understand yourself, and the people you seek to motivate or manage or develop or help. Understanding personality is also a key to unlocking elusive human qualities, for example leadership , motivation , and empathy , whether your purpose is self-development, helping others, or any other field relating to people and how we behave.
The personality theories that underpin personality tests and personality quizzes are surprisingly easy to understand at a basic level. This section seeks to explain many of these personality theories and ideas. This knowledge helps to develop self-awareness and also to help others to achieve greater self-awareness and development too.
Developing understanding of personality typology, personality traits, thinking styles and learning styles theories is also a very useful way to improve your knowledge of motivation and behaviour of self and others, in the workplace and beyond. Understanding personality types is helpful for appreciating that while people are different, everyone has a value, and special strengths and qualities, and that everyone should be treated with care and respect.
The relevance of love and spirituality - especially at work - is easier to see and explain when we understand that differences in people are usually personality-based. People very rarely set out to cause upset - they just behave differently because they are different. Personality theory and tests are useful also for management, recruitment, selection, training and teaching, on which point see also the learning styles theories on other pages such as Kolb's learning styles , Gardner's Multiple Intelligences , and the VAK learning styles model.
Completing personality tests with no knowledge of the supporting theories can be a frustrating and misleading experience - especially if the results from personality testing are not properly explained, or worse still not given at all to the person being tested. Hopefully the explanations and theories below will help dispel much of the mistique surrounding modern personality testing. There are many different personality and motivational models and theories, and each one offers a different perspective.
Behavioural and personality models are widely used in organisations, especially in psychometrics and psychometric testing personality assessments and tests. Behavioural and personality models have also been used by philosophers, leaders and managers for hundreds and in some cases thousands of years as an aid to understanding, explaining, and managing communications and relationships. Used appropriately, psychometrics and personality tests can be hugely beneficial in improving knowledge of self and other people - motivations, strengths, weaknesses, preferred thinking and working styles, and also strengths and preferred styles for communications, learning, management, being managed, and team-working.
Understanding personality - of your self and others - is central to motivation. Different people have different strengths and needs. You do too. The more you understand about personality, the better able you are to judge what motivates people - and yourself.
The more you understand about your own personality and that of other people, the better able you are to realise how others perceive you, and how they react to your own personality and style.
Knowing how to adapt the way you work with others, how you communicate, provide information and learning, how you identify and agree tasks, are the main factors enabling successfully managing and motivating others - and yourself. Importantly you do not necessarily need to use a psychometrics instrument in order to understand the theory and the basic model which underpins it.
Obviously using good psychometrics instruments can be extremely useful and beneficial, and enjoyable too if properly positioned and administered , but the long-standing benefit from working with these models is actually in understanding the logic and theory which underpin the behavioural models or personality testing systems concerned. Each theory helps you to understand more about yourself and others. In terms of 'motivating others' you cannot sustainably 'impose' motivation on another person.
You can inspire them perhaps, which lasts as long as you can sustain the inspiration, but sustainable motivation must come from within the person. A good manager and leader will enable and provide the situation, environment and opportunities necessary for people to be motivated - in pursuit of goals and development and achievements that are truly meaningful to the individual. Which implies that you need to discover, and at times help the other person to discover, what truly motivates them - especially their strengths, passions, and personal aims - for some the pursuit of personal destiny - to achieve their own unique potential.
Being able to explain personality, and to guide people towards resources that will help them understand more about themselves, is all part of the process. Help others to help you understand what they need - for work and for whole life development, and you will have an important key to motivating, helping and working with people.
Each of the different theories and models of personality and human motivation is a different perspective on the hugely complex area of personality, motivation and behaviour.
It follows that for any complex subject, the more perspectives you have, then the better your overall understanding will be. Each summary featured below is just that - a summary: a starting point from which you can pursue the detail and workings of any of these models that you find particularly interesting and relevant.
Explore the many other models and theories not featured on this site too - the examples below are a just small sample of the wide range of models and systems that have been developed. Some personality testing resources, including assessment instruments, are available free on the internet or at relatively low cost from appropriate providers, and they are wonderful tools for self-awareness, personal development, working with people and for helping to develop better working relationships.
Some instruments however are rather more expensive, given that the developers and psychometrics organisations need to recover their development costs. For this reason, scientifically validated personality testing instruments are rarely free.
The free tests which are scientifically validated tend to be 'lite' introductory instruments which give a broad indication rather than a detailed analysis.
There are dozens of different personality testing systems to explore, beneath which sit rather fewer basic theories and models. In this section are examples personality and style models, which are all relatively easy to understand and apply.
Don't allow providers to baffle you with science - all of these theories are quite accessible at a basic level, which is immensely helpful to understanding a lot of what you need concerning motivation and personality in work and life beyond. Do seek appropriate training and accreditation if you wish to pursue and use psychometrics testing in a formal way, especially if testing or assessing people in organisations or in the provision of services.
Administering formal personality tests - whether in recruitment, assessment, training and development, counselling or for other purposes - is a sensitive and skilled area. People are vulnerable to inaccurate suggestion, misinterpretation, or poor and insensitive explanation, so approach personality testing with care, and be sure you are equipped and capable to deal with testing situations properly.
For similar reasons you need to be properly trained to get involved in counselling or therapy for clinical or serious emotional situations. People with clinical conditions, depression and serious emotional disturbance usually need qualified professional help, and if you aren't qualified yourself then the best you can do is to offer to help the other person get the right support. Beware of using unlicensed 'pirated' or illegally copied psychometrics instruments. Always check to ensure that any tools that are 'apparently' free and in the public domain are actually so.
If in doubt about the legitimacy of any psychometrics instrument avoid using it. If in doubt check. These systems and others like them are not likely to be in the public domain and not legitimately free, and so you should not use them without a licence or the officially purchased materials from the relevant providers. Nature versus Nurture: no-one knows. Most studies seem to indicate that it's a bit of each, roughly half and half, although obviously it varies person-to-person.
Given that perhaps half our personality is determined by influences acting upon us after we are conceived and born, it's interesting and significant also that no-one actually knows the extent to which personality changes over time. Certainly childhood is highly influential in forming personality. Certainly major trauma at any stage of life can change a person's personality quite fundamentally.
Certainly many people seem to mature emotionally with age and experience. But beyond these sort of generalisations, it's difficult to be precise about how and when - and if - personality actually changes. So where do we draw the line and say a personality is fixed and firm? The answer in absolute terms is that we can't. We can however identify general personality styles, aptitudes, sensitivities, traits, etc. And this level of awareness is far better than having none at all. Which is is purpose of this information about personality and style 'types'.
What follows is intended to be give a broad, accessible hopefully interesting level of awareness of personality and types, and of ways to interpret and define and recognise different personalities and behaviours, so as to better understand yourself and others around you.
The Four Temperaments ideas can be traced back to the traditions of the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilisations over 5, years ago, in which the health of the body was connected with the elements, fire, water, earth and air, which in turn were related to body organs, fluids, and treatments.
Some of this thinking survives today in traditional Eastern ideas and medicine. The ancient Greeks however first formalised and popularised the Four Temperaments methodologies around 2, years ago, and these ideas came to dominate Western thinking about human behaviour and medical treatment for over two-thousand years.
Most of these concepts for understanding personality, behaviour, illness and treatment of illness amazingly persisted in the Western world until the mids. The Four Temperaments or Four Humours can be traced back reliably to Ancient Greek medicine and philosophy, notably in the work of Hippocrates c. In Greek medicine around 2, years ago it was believed that in order to maintain health, people needed an even balance of the four body fluids: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile.
These four body fluids were linked in daft ways by modern standards to certain organs and illnesses and also represented the Four Temperaments or Four Humours of personality as they later became known. As regards significant body fluids no doubt natural body waste products were discounted, since perfectly healthy people evacuate a good volume of them every day.
Blood is an obvious choice for a fluid associated with problems - there'd have generally been quite a lot of it about when people were unwell thousands of years ago, especially if you'd been hit with a club or run over by a great big chariot. Phlegm is an obvious one too - colds and flu and chest infections tend to produce gallons of the stuff and I doubt the ancient Greeks had any better ideas of how to get rid of it than we do today.
Yellow bile is less easy to understand although it's generally thought have been the yellowish liquid secreted by the liver to aid digestion. In ancient times a bucketful of yellow bile would have been the natural upshot, so to speak, after a night on the local wine or taking a drink from the well that your next-door neighbour threw his dead cat into last week.
Black bile is actually a bit of a mystery. Some say it was congealed blood, or more likely stomach bile with some blood in it. Students of the technicolour yawn might have observed that bile does indeed come in a variety of shades, depending on the ailment or what exactly you had to drink the night before.
Probably the ancient Greeks noticed the same variation and thought it was two different biles. Whatever, these four were the vital fluids, and they each related strongly to what was understood at the time about people's health and personality.
Imbalance between the 'humours' manifested in different behaviour and illnesses, and treatments were based on restoring balance between the humours and body fluids which were at the time seen as the same thing.
Hence such practices as blood-letting by cutting or with with leeches. Incidentally the traditional red and white striped poles - representing blood and bandages - can still occasionally be seen outside barber shops and are a fascinating reminder that these medical beliefs and practices didn't finally die out until the late s. The organs of the body - liver, lungs, gall bladder and spleen - were also strongly connected with the Four Temperaments or Humours and medicinal theory.
Relating these ancient patterns to the modern interpretation of the Four Temperaments does not however produce scientifically robust correlations. They were thought relevant at one time, but in truth they are not, just as blood letting has now been discounted as a reliable medical treatment. But while the causal link between body fluids and health and personality has not stood the test of time, the analysis of personality via the Four Temperaments seems to have done so, albeit tenuously in certain models.
The explanation below is chiefly concerned with the Four Temperaments as a personality model, not as a basis for understanding and treating illness. Stephen Montgomery author of the excellent book ' People Patterns - A Modern Guide to the Four Temperaments ' suggests that the origins of the Four Temperaments can be identified earlier than the ancient Greeks, namely in the Bible, c. Montgomery additionally attributes personality characteristics to each of the four faces, which he correlates to modern interpretations of the Four Temperaments and also to Hippocrates' ideas, compared below.
The Ezekiel characteristics, bold, sturdy, humane, far-seeing , do not appear in the Bible - they have been attributed retrospectively by Montgomery. The describing words shown here for the Hippocrates Four Temperaments are also those used by Montgomery, other similar descriptions are used in different interpretations and commentaries.
Later, and very significantly, Galen, c. Each of Galen's describing words survives in the English language although the meanings will have altered somewhat with the passing of nearly two thousand years. The Four Temperaments or Four Humours continued to feature in the thinking and representations of human personality in the work of many great thinkers through the ages since these earliest beginnings, and although different theorists have used their own interpretations and descriptive words for each of the temperaments through the centuries, it is fascinating to note the relative consistency of these various interpretations which are shown in the history overview table below.
David Keirsey's interpretation of the Four Temperaments is expressed by Montgomery in a 2x2 matrix, which provides an interesting modern perspective and helpful way to appreciate the model, and also perhaps to begin to apply it to yourself. Can you see yourself in one of these descriptions?
The work of Lev Vygotsky has become the foundation of much research and theory in cognitive development over the past several decades, particularly of what has become known as sociocultural theory. Vygotsky's theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition Vygotsky, , as he believed strongly that community plays a central role in the process of "making meaning. Unlike Piaget's notion that childrens' development must necessarily precede their learning, Vygotsky argued, "learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological function" , p. In other words, social learning tends to precede i. Vygotsky has developed a sociocultural approach to cognitive development. He developed his theories at around the same time as Jean Piaget was starting to develop his ideas 's and 30's , but he died at the age of 38, and so his theories are incomplete - although some of his writings are still being translated from Russian. No single principle such as Piaget's equilibration can account for development.
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The Agnostic PAC model removes this restriction. Goal setting theory had been proposed by Edwin Locke in the year The rest of the theories were cited five times or less. Mediation is a fundamental principle and language is a cultural artifact that mediates social and psychological activities. The interaction theory attempts to understand the deeper meanings individuals give to their participation in and relationships with schools. Today, we would like to provide our own overview of behaviorism and how it can be used in the classroom to promote learning.
Case studies provide a roadmap for decision-making in future cases, help drive the development of new analysis and thought about complex medical and moral dilemmas, and are an effective way to bring bioethics alive for students, healthcare providers, administrators, attorneys and, even in some situations, patients and families. Analyzing ethical case studies with your mentors, colleagues, and peer students also provides opportunities for each participant to articulate her own ethical values and to seek ethical consensus within the group. The disclosure.
Motivation, management, communications, relationships - focused on yourself or others - are a lot more effective when you understand yourself, and the people you seek to motivate or manage or develop or help. Understanding personality is also a key to unlocking elusive human qualities, for example leadership , motivation , and empathy , whether your purpose is self-development, helping others, or any other field relating to people and how we behave. The personality theories that underpin personality tests and personality quizzes are surprisingly easy to understand at a basic level.
Сотрудникам службы безопасности платили за их техническое мастерство… а также за чутье. Действуй, объясняться будешь. Чатрукьян знал, что ему делать. Знал он и то, что, когда пыль осядет, он либо станет героем АНБ, либо пополнит ряды тех, кто ищет работу.
Какой тип? - Беккер хмуро взглянул на полицейского. - Тот, что вызвал скорую. Он болтал что-то на ужаснейшем испанском, который мне только доводилось слышать.
Казалось, говорившие находились этажом ниже. Один голос был резкий, сердитый. Похоже, он принадлежал Филу Чатрукьяну. - Ты мне не веришь.
- Номер четыре. Они со Сьюзан слушали этот концерт в прошлом году в университете в исполнении оркестра Академии Святого Мартина. Ему вдруг страшно захотелось увидеть ее - сейчас .
Evolution of behavior and cognition The goal of this section is to provide a basic conceptual frame for understanding the evolved functions of behavior and cognition.