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Leadership And Its Theories Pdf

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You can use these as inspiration and a potential toolkit from which you can develop your own leadership style based on your own personality, the task at hand and the team that you are leading.

Understanding theories and styles of leadership can help you be more effective in your role, particularly if your position requires frequent collaboration with or management of others. Also, during the job search process, interviewers may assess your leadership potential, so it can be helpful to understand your preferred leadership practice. In this article, we define leadership theory and leadership style, explore the main leadership theories and explain why you should define your leadership approach.


To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. In , psychologist Gordon Allport found that one English-language dictionary alone contained more than 4, words describing different personality traits.

He categorized these traits into three levels Cardinal Traits: Traits that dominate an individual's whole life, often to the point that the person becomes known specifically for these traits. People with such personalities often become so known for these traits that their names are often synonymous with these qualities. Consider the origin and meaning of the following descriptive terms: Freudian, Machiavellian, narcissism, Don Juan, Christ-like, etc.

Allport suggested that cardinal traits are rare and tend to develop later in life. Some examples would be getting anxious when speaking to a group or impatient while waiting in line. It also gives a detailed knowledge and understanding of the leadership element in the leadership process among the staff and students in our schools.

However, headmasters, Directors and Educational Authorities must be mindful of using the trait theory alone in appointing people to leadership positions since it ignores the followers and the situation that also help a leader to be successful.

Contingency Theories Situational The theories of contingency recommends that no leadership style is precise as a stand-alone as the leadership style used is reliant upon the factors such as the quality, situation of the followers or a number of other variables.

In most cases, leaders do not change only the dynamics and environment, employees within the organization change. Contingency theorists assumed that the leader was the focus of leader-subordinate relationship;Situational theorists opined that the subordinates played a pivotal role in defining the relationship.

Though, the situational leadership stays to emphasis mostly upon the leader, it creates the significance of the focus into group dynamic. The theory of situational leadership proposes that style of leadership should be accorded with the maturity of the subordinates Bass, This school of thought which seems most modern, is the view that a leader must be flexible and sensitive enough to respond to the particular indigenous circumstances within which he finds himself.

Even though this approach offers valuable contributions to the study and practice of leadership, its extreme form, for example when its claim that outmost everything is determined by the environment could be disastrous. On the whole, advocates of the approach have helped us to think more about what as leaders we can and ought to do as leaders in different situations.

Fiedler taught that three things were important for any leader. The relationship between the leaders and followers: it is believed that the more leaders are liked and respected, they would more likely have staff support 2. The structure of the task: if the work to be done is clearly stated to the staff, they will be more likely to do it, and consequently, the leader is likely to be more effective.

I was an average student but somehow she managed to bring out the best in me and I made the honor roll that year. Looking at the different aspects that make leaders, teachers have to adapt to their different students. Every student is differentsome are smarter and grasp things easier while others may struggle and need a bit more help, there are those that can't sit still or stop talking and others so shy they don't speak up at all.

Each student requires a different approach to help him or her learn. Situational leadership looks at leadership in different situations and each situation that presents itself needs to be addressed differently, and for a leader to be effective, they must change his or her style to fit those situations PSU WC, Leadership styles are broken down into four different categories of behaviors that are either high or low in either directive or supportive styles: Directing, coaching, supporting and delegating PSU WC, Each one determines what style needs to be used based on the situation that is presented and the four different developmental level of the follower.

Each one of their students may fall into a different level of readiness and teachers need to be able to adjust accordingly. The students followers can fall in to one of four different development levels: two that are follower directed and two that are leader directed and are organized along a continuum of developmental opportunity of the follower ranging from high to low.

In the case of the teacher, if one student is able to complete their assignment then this would be follower directed and the teacher would only have to intervene minimally to give instructions on what needs to be done; this would be characterized as a level four or D4. On the other hand, the shy student in the corner may need a bit more coaxing so the teacher would have to switch behavior and become more of a coach to the student.

This would be a leader directed situation, similar to a D2. Seeing as how many classrooms today consist of at lease studentsthat is a lot of behavior switching! The successful teacher is one that gets to know his or her students and figure out what works and what doesn't.

The same can be true of leadersget to know your followers and find out what works and what doesn't. I came across an article that looked at managers of Walgreen's and how they got to know their employee's and used it to their advantage to increase their profits. Situational Leadership takes the motivational level of employees into consideration when selecting a leadership style. For example, a motivated and willing employee will require less coaching than an unmotivated individual.

Since motivation largely comes from within the individual, head teachers must understand what motivates their teachersor risk diminishing engagement and efficiency in our schools Situational Leadership can provide leaders and managers of schools with the tools necessary to influence others and to help them appropriately cultivate and exercise their power to influence and affect change. Situational Leadership approaches performance as situation-specific, requiring leaders to assess performance based on a specific task and work climate.

This will help leaders in our schools analyse the task and working climate of both teachers and students when assessing them. It helps school leaders to use appropriate reward, sanction and make appropriate decisions relative to the situation in the school Full range leadership theoryAccording to Burns , there are basically two types of leadership: transactional and transformational, the latest being defined as a process in which leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of morality and motivation.

In , Bass, extending the theory developed by Burns , proposed an integrative theory of organizational leadership. From a descriptive perspective, Laissez-faire leadership refers to leaders who avoid making decisions and who are focused on problems that need to be corrected;The full range of leadership is a general leadership theory focusing on the behavior of leaders towards the workforce in different work situations.

The model relates transactional and transformational leadership style with laissez-faire leadership style. It sorted according to a leader's engagement towards his or her team.

The full range leadership theory is organized around two 2 axes: degree of activity and degree of effectiveness. The activity axis is concerned with how active or passive the leader is in his or her way of being towards others and towards the aims and goals of the organization. Basically this axis concerns the leader's level of engagement and involvement in the leadership process. On the other hand, the effectiveness axis concerns the effect the specific leadership style has on follower, group and organizational outcomes such as performance, internal motivation and wellbeing.

According to Bass and Avolio , "the full range leadership theory -or FRLT -comprises nine factors reflecting three broad classes of behavior: transformational leadership, with five distinct factors namely: idealized influenceattributed, idealized influencebehaviors, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration. For CR to work properly, the leader needs to set goals for their subordinates, explain the expectations for the subordinate's work, and define the roles, levels of authority and responsibility, and pertinent processes so the subordinates will understand what is expected of them.

The subordinates will respond to these instructions by meeting the performance requirements levied upon them. In response, the subordinates will receive some agreed upon reward. Typically, we think of the CR as a factor of pay and benefits. This is true for most routine work; however, there are also CRs for non-routine work. For instance, it is common in many units for "of-the-quarter" award winners to receive a passtime off from work for their outstanding work.

If personnel are motivated to superior performance to get this passand the accompanying rewards often a bag of gifts or even a check that accompany the awardthen they are working toward a CR; a reward contingent upon their outstanding work. CRs need not be positive. One can think of CR as a "carrot-and-stick approach" to management. In return for good performance, subordinates get a reward. In return for failing to achieve established performance objectives, the subordinates get a negative reward.

CR is entirely appropriate when dealing with committed, talented people who know the requirements of their jobs and need little additional encouragement to achieve success. This is not to say that leaders should not try to employ transformational leadership in those areas that are exceeding production goals, only that leaders can focus their attention on those groups, offices, or organizations within their span of control that need more time and attention.

Some major shortcomings of CR are that it typically fails to inspire people to exceed the performance standards outline for them. In fact, in some work settings workers might actually ostracize co-workers who exceed standards arguing that they are "giving for free" work that should be compensated.

This is not usually a factor for uniformed personnel, but is a common them in production-worker contract negotiations. Another potential shortcoming of CR, far more relevant to military personnel, is leadership's failure to discern which CRs work and which do not. Military leaders need to understand their subordinates wants and needs in order to offer CRs that actually stimulate desired behaviors. Clearly, leaders need to understand both their people and the potential CRs that are available to themboth positive and negative -in order to employ transactional CR effectively.

Failure to achieve this understanding seriously limits leader's ability to employ this highly effective leadership behavior. In such a leadership, the leader tries to agree with the subordinates on what has to be done and what will be the reward.

This is seen in stances where heads set rules and assign roles and responsibilities to teachers and pupils and stating clearly what is expected of them. Teachers and pupils are awarded with praise or prizes during speech and prize giving days or promotions when they achieve tasks assigned to them. Failure to achieve goals also moves with a negative reward such as reprimand. Teachers have to employ various strategies, including incentives, in order to attract less motivated students to the process of education.

Transformational leaders are those who transform their followers. Through the use of inspiration and motivation, they motivate their followers to do more than was originally intendedoften more than either the leader or follower thought was possible.

In their book Transformational Leadership, Bass and Riggio argue that, "Transformational leadership involves inspiring followers to commit to a shared vision and goals for an organization or unit, challenging them to be innovative problem solvers, and developing followers' leadership capacity via coaching, mentoring, and provision of both challenges and support. This factor is characteristic to leaders who create the climate of reciprocal support, by attentive regard to individual needs of the followers and also the leader himself takes the role of the adviser in order to provide a basis for self-realization of the followers.

Through IS, leaders stimulate followers creativity. Leaders employing IS question assumptions, processes and existing paradigms, forcing their followers to rethink their solutions and create new approaches to problems. Such leaders include their followers in decision-making related to such improvements. They support some risk-taking, allowing subordinates to try their ideas and not over-reacting to failure. If a leader is not accepting of occasional failures, their followers will be unwilling to take risks.

IS cannot solve every problem. Sometimes the people do not possess the expertise or access to the expertise needed to solve a problem.

In other instances, innovative efforts are stymied by external requirements. In most instances, however, people can and will innovate improvements in their jobs and the processes in which they are involved if only afforded opportunities. The results are improved job performance but also increased job satisfaction as people take ownership of their performance and realize that they are trusted and empowered to make improvements.

They develop and clearly articulate a vision and 24 the expectations for their follower's performance.

Leadership theories and styles.

Behavioral Theory of leadership is a big leap from Trait Theory, as it was developed scientifically by conducting behaviour focused studies. The theory emphasizes that leadership capability can be learned, rather than being inherent. This theory is based on the principle that a leader's behaviors can be conditioned in a manner that one can have a specific response to specific stimuli. In the s, two parallel studies on leadership were in progress, one based on traits displayed by leaders , another on the behaviours exhibited by leaders. Behavior is the range of actions and mannerisms made by organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the physical environment.

According to Lindblom, the incremental policy process is more relied on former existing policies. The Input Process. Each of them have its own views regarding how policy can change, what actors can involve, how non-state actors such as NGOs can engage and what type of policies. Political process theory PPT is considered the core theory of social movements and how they mobilize work to create change. However, it is prone to confusion in the growth process was made evident. Thus, it is a developmental psychology theory. The deviant place theory states that greater exposure to dangerous places makes an individual more likely to become the victim of a crime Seigel,

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The Major Leadership Theories

Adaptive leadership pdf. The adaptive leader needs to be able to connect organizational change to the core values, capabilities, and dreams of the relevant Educational leadership; adaptive leadership; orchestrate conflict; com-peting commitments; experimentation; take care of yourself; hunker down; adaptive challenges versus technical problems. Leaders must be flexible and accept change as part of the business lifecycle. He created this way of understanding human behavior and mobilizing meaningful progress from listening to hundreds of stories and dilemmas faced by committed, hardworking leaders trying to bring about Adaptive Leadership: The session begins with a learning laboratory facilitated by AchieveMission.

Theories Of The Policy Process Pdf

Good leaders are a vital part of effective business practices. In the world of leadership there are many theories about how leadership works, what makes good leaders, and how to be effective. There are many leadership styles that managers can employ and their impact varies based on the group they are leading and the industry they are in. These leadership theories explain how leadership styles work within a company to bring success. Leadership theories are the explanations of how and why certain people become leaders.

 Извини. Я не могу этого сделать.  - Скрестив на груди руки, он вышел из ее кабинета.

6 Leadership Theories for Career Growth

Он совсем забыл: звонок за границу из Испании - все равно что игра в рулетку, все зависит от времени суток и удачи. Придется попробовать через несколько минут. Беккер старался не обращать внимания на легкий запах перца.

Да, Грег Хейл противный и наглый, но он же не предатель. Зная, чем грозит агентству Цифровая крепость, не мог же он участвовать в заговоре по ее созданию. И все же Сьюзан понимала, что остановить Хейла могут только его представления о чести и честности. Она вспомнила об алгоритме Попрыгунчик. Один раз Грег Хейл уже разрушил планы АНБ.

Дрожащей рукой она дотянулась до панели и набрала шифр. S…U…Z…A…N И в то же мгновение дверца лифта открылась. ГЛАВА 108 Лифт Стратмора начал стремительно спускаться. В кабине Сьюзан жадно вдохнула свежий прохладный воздух и, почувствовав головокружение, прижалась к стенке лифта. Вскоре спуск закончился, переключились какие-то шестеренки, и лифт снова начал движение, на этот раз горизонтальное.

 Я пробовал, - прошептал Стратмор еле слышно. Ей еще не приходилось слышать, чтобы он так. - Что значит - пробовал.

Все это вранье, и ты это отлично знаешь. Скажи мне, что происходит. Сьюзан прищурилась. Ты сам отлично знаешь, что происходит.

Глаза Беккера расширились. - Ты его. Двухцветный равнодушно кивнул. - Где оно? - не отставал Беккер.


Беккер спустился вниз, постоял, глядя на самолет, потом опустил глаза на пачку денег в руке. Постояв еще некоторое время в нерешительности, он сунул конверт во внутренний карман пиджака и зашагал по летному полю. Странное начало. Он постарался выкинуть этот эпизод из головы. Если повезет, он успеет вернуться и все же съездить с Сьюзан в их любимый Стоун-Мэнор.

 Вы из муниципалитета. - Нет, вообще-то я… - Из туристического бюро. - Нет, я… - Слушайте, я знаю, зачем вы пришли! - Старик попытался сесть в кровати.  - Меня не удастся запугать. Я уже говорил это и могу повторить тысячу раз - Пьер Клушар описывает мир таким, каким его видит.


Brendano R. 15.05.2021 at 22:47

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