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Waiting for the Barbarians has been read by many critics as an allegory. This reading is often based on the fact that the novel does not contain specific temporal and spacial references, and also on the particularity of J. Coetzee's historical situatedness: writing as a white South African during the apartheid period. The present study, although not denying the importance and relevance that allegorical readings of Coetzee's novel may carry, is focused on Coetzee's treatment of otherness and moral responsibility from a different perspective. It consists of a close analysis of textual elements which indicate the moral journey of the character-narrator the Magistrate , from passive fulfilment of his duty, through a confused sense of affinity with the evildoers, to the development of a moral awareness of injustice and the insidious ways one participates in it.

Civilising barbarians

The various peoples of Germany are separated from the Gauls by the Rhine, from the Raetians and Pannonians by the Danube, and from the Sarmatians and Dacians by mountains -- or, where there are no mountains, by mutual fear. The northern parts of the country are girdled by the sea, flowing round broad peninsulas and vast islands where a campaign of the present century has revealed to us the existence of some nations and kings hitherto unknown.

The Rhine rises in a remote and precipitous height of the Raetian Alps and afterwards turns slightly westward to flow into the North Sea. The Danube issues from a gentle slop of moderate height in the Black Forest, and after passing more peoples than the Rhine in its course discharges itself into the Black Sea through six channels -- a seventh mouth being lost in marshlands.

As to the Germans themselves, I think it probable that they are indegenous and that very little foreign blood has been introduced either by invasians or by friendly dealings with neighboring peoples. For in former times it was not by land but on shipboard that would-be immigrants arrived; and the limitless ocean that lies beyond the coasts of Germany, and as it were defies intruders, is seldom visited by ships from our part of the world.

And to say nothing of the perils of that wild and unknown sea, who would have been likely to leave Asia Minor, North Africa, or Italy, to go to Germany with its forbidding landscapes and unpleasant climate - a country that is thankless to till and dismal to behold for anyone who was not born and bred there?

In the traditional songs which form their only record of the past the Germans celebrate an earth-born god called Tuisto. His son Mannus is supposed to be the fountain-head of their race and himself to have begotten three sons who gave their names to three groups of tribes - the Ingaevones, nearest the sea; the Herminones, in the interior; and the Istaevones, who comprise all the rest.

Some authorities, with the freedom of conjecture permitted by remote antiquity, assert that Tuisto had more numerous descendants and mention more tribal groups such as Marsi, Gambrivii, Suebi, and Vandilii - names which they affirm to be both genuine and ancient.

The name Germania, however, is said to have been only recently applied to the country. The first people to cross the Rhine and appropriate Gallic territory, though they are known nowadays as Tungri, were at that time called German; and what was at first the name of this one tribe, not of the entire race, gradually came into general use in the wider sense.

It was first applied to the whole people by the conquerors of the Gauls, to frighten them; later, all the Germans adopted it and called themselves by the new name. The Germans, like many other peoples, are said to have been visited by Hercules, and they sing of him as the foremost of all the heroes when they are about to engage in battle. Ulysses also, in all those fabled wanderings of his, is supposed by some to have reached the northern sea and visited German lands, and to have founded and named Asciburgium, a town on the Rhine inhabited to this day.

They even add that an altar consecrated by Ulysses and inscribed also with the name of his father Laertes was discovered long ago at this same place, and that certain barrows with monuments upon them bearing Greek inscriptions still exist on the borders of Germany and Raetia. I do not intend to argue either for or against these assertions; each man must accept or reject them as he feels inclined.

They also have the well-known kind of chant that they call baritus. By the rendering of this they not only kindle their courage, but, merely by listenrng to the sound, they can forecast the issue of an approaching engagement. For they either terrify their foes or themselves become frightened, according to the character ofthe noise they make upon the battlefield; and they regard it not merely as so many voices chanting together but as a unison of velour.

What they particularly aim at is a harsh, intermittent roar; and they hold their shields in front of their mouths, so that the sound is amplified into a deeper crescendo by the reverberation. For myself, I accept the view that the peoples of Germany have never contaminated themselves by intermarriage with foreigners but remain of pure blood, distinct and unlike any other nation.

One result of this is that their physical characteristics, in so far as one can generalize about such a large population, are always the same: fierce-looking blue eyes, reddish hair, and big frames - which, however, can exert their strength only by means of violent effort.

They are less able to endure toil or fatiguing tasks and cannot bear thirst or heat, though their climate has inured them to cold spells and the poverty of their soil to hunger. The appearance of the country differs considerably in different parts; but in general it is covered either by bristling forests or by foul swamps. It is wetter on the side that faces Gaul, windier on the side of Noricum and Pannonia.

A good soil for cereal crops, it will not grow fruit-trees. It is well provided with live-stock; but the animals are mostly undersized, and even the cattle lack the handsome heads that are their natural glory.

It is the mere number of them that the Germans take pride in; for these are the only form of wealth they have, and are much prized. Silver and gold have been denied them whether as a sign of divine favour or of divine wrath, I cannot say.

Yet I would not positively assert that there are no deposits of silver or gold in Germany, since no one has prospected for them. The natives take less pleasure than most people do in possessing and handling these metals; indeed, one can see in their houses silver vessels, which have been presented to chieftains or to ambassadors travelling abroad, put to the same everyday uses as earthenware.

Those who live on the frontiers nearest us, however, do value gold and silver for their use in commerce, being quick to recognize and pick out certain of our coin-types.

They like old-fashioned coins because they have been long familiar with them - especially those which have notched edges and are stamped with representations of two-horse chariots.

They also prefer silver to gold, not from any special liking for the metal, but because a quantity of silver coins is more convenient for buying ordinary cheap merchandise.

Even iron is not plentiful; this has been inferred from the sort of weapons they have. Only a few of them use swords or large lances: they carry spears - called frameae in their language - with short and narrow blades, but so sharp and easy to handle that they can be used, as required, either at close quarters or in long-range fighting.

Their horsemen are content with a shield and a spear; but the foot-soldiers also rain javelins on their foes: each of them carries several, and they hurl them to immense distances, being naked or lightly clad in short cloaks. There is nothing ostentatious about their equipment: only their shields are picked out in the colours of their choice. Few have breastplates, and only one here and there a helmet of metal or hide.

Their horses are not remarkable for either beauty or speed, and are not trained to execute various evolutions as ours are; they ride them straight ahead, or with just a single wheel to the right, keeping their line so well that not a man falls behind the rest.

Generally speaking, their strength lies in infantry rather than cavalry. So foot-soldiers accompany the cavalry into action, their speed of foot being such that they can easily keep up with the charging horsemen. The best men are chosen from the whole body of young warriors and placed with the cavalry in front of the main battle line.

The number of these. Thus what was originally a mere number has come to be a title of distinction. The battle-line is made up of wedge-shaped formations. To give ground, provided that you return to the attack, is considered good tactics rather than cowardice.

They bring back the bodies of the fallen even when a battle hangs in the balance. To throw away one's shield is the supreme disgrace, and the man who has thus dishonoured himself is debarred from attendance at sacrifice or assembly. Many such survivors from the battlefield have ended their shame by hanging themselves. They choose their kings for their noble birth, their commanders for their valour.

The power even of the kings is not absolute or arbitrary. The commanders rely on example rather than on the authority of their rank - on the admiration they win by showing conspicuous energy and courage and by pressing forward in front of their own troops. Capital punishment, imprisonment, even flogging, are allowed to none but the priests, and are not inflicted merely as punishments or on the commanders' orders, but as it were in obedience to the god whom the Germans believe to be present on the field of battle.

They actually carry with them into the fight certain figures and emblems taken from their sacred groves. A specially powerful incitement to velour is that the squadrons and divisions are not made up at random by the mustering of chance-comers, but are each composed of men of one family or clan. Close by them, too, are their nearest and dearest, so that they can hear the shrieks of their womenfolk and the wailing of their children.

These are the witnesses whom each man reverences most highly, whose praise he most desires. It is to their mothers and wives that they go to have their wounds treated, and the women are not afraid to count and compare the gashes. They also carry supplies of food to the combatants and encourage them.

It stands on record that armies already wavering and on the point of collapse have been rallied by the women, pleading heroically with their men, thrusting forward their bared bosoms, and making them realize the imminent prospect of enslavement - a fate which the Germans fear more desperately for their women than for themselves.

Indeed, you can secure a surer hold on these nations if you compel them to include among a consignment of hostages some girls of noble family. More than this, they believe that there resides in women an element of holiness and a gift of prophecy; and so they do not scorn to ask their advice, or lightly disregard their replies.

In the reign of the emperor Vespasian we saw Veleda long honoured by many Germans as a divinity; and even earlier they showed a similar reverence for Aurinia and a number of others - a reverence untainted by servile flattery or any presence of turning women into goddesses. Above all other gods they worship Mercury, and count it no sin, on certain feast-days, to include human victims in the sacrifices offered to him. Hercules and Mars they appease by offerings of animals, in accordance with ordinary civilized custom.

Some of the Suebi sacrifice also to Isis. I do not know the origin or explanation of this foreign cult; but the goddess's emblem, being made in the form of a light warship, itself proves that her worship came in from abroad. The Germans do not think it in keeping with the divine majesty to confine gods within walls or to portray them in the likeness of any human countenance.

Their holy places are woods and groves, and they apply the names of deities to that hidden presence which is seen only by the eye of reverence. For omens and the casting of lots they have the highest regard.

Their procedure in casting lots is always the same. They cut off a branch of a nut-bearing tree and slice it into strips; these they mark with different signs and throw them completely at random onto a white cloth. Then the priest of the state, if the consultation is a public one, or the father of the family if it is private, offers a prayer to the gods, and looking up at the sky picks up three strips, one at a time, and reads their meaning from the signs previously scored on them.

If the lots forbid an enterprise, there is no deliberation that day on the matter in question ;' if they allow it, confirmation by the taking of auspices is required. Although the familiar method of seeking information from the cries and the flight of birds is known to the Germans, they have also a special method of their own - to try to obtain omens and warnings from horses.

These horses are kept at the public expense in the sacred woods and groves that I have mentioned; they are pure white and unclefiled by any toil in the service of man. The priest and the king, or the chief of the state, yoke them to a sacred chariot and walk beside them, taking note oftheir neighs and snorts.

No kind of omen inspires greater trust, not only among the common people, but even among the nobles and priests, who think that they themselves are but servants of the gods, whereas the horses are privy to the gods' counsels.

There is yet another kind of omen-taking used to forecast the issue of serious wars. They contrive somehow to secure a captive from the nation with which they are at war and match him against a champion of their own, each being armed with his national weapons. The victory of one or the other is thought to forecast the issue of the war. On matters of minor importance only the chiefs debate; on major affairs, the whole community. But even where the commons have the decision, the subject is considered in advance by the chiefs.

Except in case of accident or emergency, they assemble on certain particular days, either shortly after the new moon or shortly before the full moon.

These, they hold, are the most auspicious times for embarking on any enterprise. They do not reckon time by days, as we do, but by nights. All their engagements and appointments are made on this system. Night is regarded as ushering in the day. It is a drawback of their independent spirit that they do not take a summons as a command: instead of coming to a meeting all together, they waste two or three days by their unpunc tuality.

When the assembled crowd thinks fit, they take their seats fully armed. Silence is then commanded by the priests, who on such occasions have power to enforce obedience. Then such hearing is given to the king or state-chief as his age, rank, military distinction, or eloquence can secure- more because his advice carries weight than because he has the power to command. If a proposal displeases them, the people shout their dissent; if they approve, they clash their spears.

To express approbation with their weapons is their most complimentary way of showing agreement. The Assembly is competent also to hear criminal charges, especially those involving the risk of capital punishment. The mode of execution varies according to the offence. Traitors and deserters are hanged on trees; cowards, shirkers, and sodomites are pressed down under a wicker hurdle into the slimy mud of a bog.

Henry James

The deputies were searching the north. Taverner call you in out of loneliness. And like many of the old ones, he thought of me as a servant. Surely you could get a less demeaning job. And then, you always wonder if it really is going to be such a big deal. Each had two banana clips fastened end to end with black electrical tape, so that when one clip was shot empty, the two-clip rig would only have to be flipped to re-load, eliminating the need to reach for another clip.

The making of colonial Missionary heroes and the miraculous Material Information Title: Civilising barbarians missionary narrative and African textual response in nineteenth-century South Africa Physical Description: p. Notes General Note: Includes bibliographical references p. Statement of Responsibility: Leon De Kock.

Barbarians in the Greek and Roman World by Erik Jensen He dried his face off, the water mingling with the perspiration on his forehead. I am cool as cool, fire inside though, fire in fist now, and suddenly ram that into the executive pouch-​poof. Godalming saw the new-born who had stabbed Mackenzie with this group.

Henry James

The various peoples of Germany are separated from the Gauls by the Rhine, from the Raetians and Pannonians by the Danube, and from the Sarmatians and Dacians by mountains -- or, where there are no mountains, by mutual fear. The northern parts of the country are girdled by the sea, flowing round broad peninsulas and vast islands where a campaign of the present century has revealed to us the existence of some nations and kings hitherto unknown. The Rhine rises in a remote and precipitous height of the Raetian Alps and afterwards turns slightly westward to flow into the North Sea. Blood Type Diets: Books

Just a lump of gray tissue in a tank of nutrient solution. So you could come back and go into the tank, too. Hell do to us what Amy did to Hildie. Instantly he realized that Adam had used the computer to change the codes, locking him out.

People have used weapons in warfare, hunting, self-defense, law enforcement, and criminal activity. Weapons also serve many other purposes in society including use in sports, collections for display, and historical displays and demonstrations. As technology has developed throughout history, weapons have changed with it. Major innovations in the history of weapons have included the adoption of different materials — from stone and wood to different metals, and modern synthetic materials such as plastics — and the developments of different weapon styles either to fit the terrain or to support or counteract different battlefield tactics and defensive equipment. The use of weapons is a major driver of cultural evolution and human history up to today, since weapons are a type of tool which is used to dominate and subdue autonomous agents such as animals and by that allow for an expansion of the cultural niche, while simultaneously other weapon users i. As humans discovered new natural resources beneath the Earth's surface, traditional weapons were replaced as methods for metal-working developed.

Barbarian: Explorations of a Western Concept in Theory, Literature, and the Arts


 - Похоже, Стратмор здорово промыл тебе мозги. Ты отлично знаешь, что ФБР не может прослушивать телефонные разговоры произвольно: для этого они должны получить ордер. Этот новый стандарт шифрования означал бы, что АНБ может прослушивать кого угодно, где угодно и когда угодно. - Ты прав - и так и должно быть! - сурово отрезала Сьюзан.  - Если бы ты не нашел черный ход в Попрыгунчике, мы могли бы взломать любой шифр, вместо того чтобы полагаться на ТРАНСТЕКСТ.

Civilising barbarians

Неужели ему предстояло погибнуть по той же причине. Человек неумолимо приближался по крутой дорожке. Вокруг Беккера не было ничего, кроме стен.

Наверняка сегодня к ним поступил только один канадец со сломанным запястьем и сотрясением мозга, и его карточку нетрудно будет найти. Беккер понимал, что в больнице не захотят назвать имя и адрес больного незнакомому человеку, но он хорошо подготовился к разговору. В трубке раздались длинные гудки. Беккер решил, что трубку поднимут на пятый гудок, однако ее подняли на девятнадцатый.

 Да. Меня зовут Северная Дакота. Нуматака подавил смешок.

Я из канадского посольства. Наш гражданин был сегодня доставлен в вашу больницу. Я хотел бы получить информацию о нем, с тем чтобы посольство могло оплатить его лечение.

Джабба тяжко вздохнул.

Стратмор покачал головой: - Танкадо дал нам шанс. Это совершенно ясно. Тем не менее риск велик: если нас обнаружат, это, в сущности, будет означать, что он своим алгоритмом нас напугал. Нам придется публично признать не только то, что мы имеем ТРАНСТЕКСТ, но и то, что Цифровая крепость неприступна.

Сьюзан не понимала, к чему клонит Стратмор. - В марте я испробовала алгоритм с сегментированным ключом в миллион бит. Ошибка в функции цикличности, сотовая автоматика и прочее. ТРАНСТЕКСТ все равно справился.

Дэвид Беккер стоял в центре пустого зала и думал, что делать. Весь вечер оказался сплошной комедией ошибок. В его ушах звучали слова Стратмора: Не звони, пока не добудешь кольцо. Внезапно он почувствовал страшный упадок сил. Если Меган продала кольцо и улетела, нет никакой возможности узнать, где оно .


Gemma B. 18.05.2021 at 21:36

"scientific racist" thinking that both devalued non-European blood- lines and also insisted that race José María Vargas Vila, born in Colombia in , was an iconoclast tract Facing the Barbarians: The Yanqui, Behold the Enemy () appeared in Fourth Infantry, which was now absorbing the full fire of the ambush.

Amancio B. 18.05.2021 at 21:40

The companion reader to the most readable, highly regarded, and affordable history of Latin America for our times., Born in Blood and Fire, Latin American.