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Grimes, Keith, and David G. To gain a financial benefit, a smart operator views inspection as part of an overall strategy to maintain a safe pipeline. This paper shows how periodic internal inspections, followed by defect assessments using fitness-for-purpose criteria and selective repair, is the most cost beneficial way of maintaining the safety of a pipeline. The cost savings on the optimized future safe operating strategies for the pipeline offset the costs of the inspection and expert assessment.
Pipelines are recognized as the safest method of delivering energy [ I ]. However, pipelines, like all engineering plant can, and do, fail. A number of transmission pipelines have failed recently, with both tragic and spectacular effect .
For example in Venezuela in , 5 I people were burnt to death when a gas pipeline failed and the escaping gas ignited. More recently , a pipeline failed in New Jersey, USA, and the resulting fireball killed one person and injured 58 others.
There have been other recent reports of pipeline failures in Russia, Pakistan, Argentina, Canada and Britain. Pipeline failures rarely cause fatalities to the public , but they can disrupt an operator?
They can be extremely costly in terms of replacement and repair. An operator needs to maintain a safe pipeline, and ensure it has a long and profitable life.
Consequently, be must consider maintenance measures that are both cost effective and prevent failures or large repair bills. Internal inspection of a transmission pipeline using intelligent pigs is increasingly being used by pipeline operators as a means of both maintaining their pipelines and ensuring that their major asset has a long and efficient life, We have internally inspected most of our 18, km high pressure pipeline system, and are now able to reduce maintenance budgets.
The company can now look to the future with confidence in the knowledge that it knows the condition of its mainly 25 year old system pipelines, and can demonstrate to Regulatory Authorities their safety, potential for uprating and potential for an infinite design life.
This paper is aimed at answering the type of questions a pipeline operator should ask in formulating a strategy to ensure that internal inspection is a smart investment. The paper starts by covering maintenance and inspection methods in general. Engineering plants follow a? This curve shows that during a structure? This curve applies to automobiles, aircraft etc. An inspection of a pipeline will help to extend the low probability portion of Figure I - the goal for the pipeline operator being to extend the design life of his pipeline to 80 or even a years, Figure 1.
Pipelines can be, and are, routinely inspected and monitored using many direct and indirect techniques. Sign In or Register. Advanced Search. Sign In. Skip Nav Destination Proceeding Navigation. Close mobile search navigation. All Days.
Previous Paper Next Paper. Article Navigation. This Site. Google Scholar. David G. Jones David G. Published: March 24 NACE International.
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PIPELINE PIGGING TECHNOLOGY This page intentionally left blank for pigging Design details Pipeline components Pre-inspection-survey.
Corrosion is a dominant contributing factor to failures and leaks in pipelines. The high cost of corrosion and corrosion control in multiphase oil, gas, and brine pipelines represents a significant operating expense for the field. Corrosion severely affects pipeline operations, leading to lost production, unscheduled downtime for maintenance or repair, and even catastrophic failure that impacts health, environment, and safety.
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Embed Size px x x x x Copyright by Butterworth-Heinemann. All rightsreserved. Printed in the United States of America. This book,or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form withoutpermission of the publisher.
In pipeline transportation , pigging is the practice of using pipeline inspection gauges, devices generally referred to as pigs or scrapers , to perform various maintenance operations. This is done without stopping the flow of the product in the pipeline. These operations include but are not limited to cleaning and inspecting the pipeline. Pigging has been used for many years to clean large diameter pipelines in the oil industry.
Его тело расслабилось, он представил себе, как вручает кольцо сияющему заместителю директора АНБ. А потом они со Сьюзан будут лежать в кровати с балдахином в Стоун-Мэнор и наверстывать упущенное время. Девушка наконец нашла то, что искала, - газовый баллончик для самозащиты, экологически чистый аналог газа мейс, сделанный из острейшего кайенского перца и чили. Одним быстрым движением она выпрямилась, выпустила струю прямо в лицо Беккеру, после чего схватила сумку и побежала к двери.
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