File Name: yin case study research design and methods .zip
An in-depth case study of the partnership-based regional marine planning process is presented, based on interviews and documentary analysis. Offering comprehensive coverage of the design and use of the case study method in addition to an integration of applications, the book gives readers access to exemplary case studies drawn from a wide variety of academic and applied fields. The implication is that it is understandable that management theory is not the main theory used in an Islamic boarding school because the managerial role of Kiai managerial firmly determines the pace of Islamic boarding school management.
The objective of this paper is to highlight similarities and differences across various case study designs and to analyze their respective contributions to theory. Although different designs reveal some common underlying characteristics, a comparison of such case study research designs demonstrates that case study research incorporates different scientific goals and collection and analysis of data.
This paper relates this comparison to a more general debate of how different research designs contribute to a theory continuum. The fine-grained analysis demonstrates that case study designs fit differently to the pathway of the theory continuum. The resulting contribution is a portfolio of case study research designs. This portfolio demonstrates the heterogeneous contributions of case study designs.
Based on this portfolio, theoretical contributions of case study designs can be better evaluated in terms of understanding, theory-building, theory development, and theory testing. Case study research scientifically investigates into a real-life phenomenon in-depth and within its environmental context.
Such a case can be an individual, a group, an organization, an event, a problem, or an anomaly Burawoy ; Stake ; Yin Typical for case study research is non-random sampling; there is no sample that represents a larger population. Contrary to quantitative logic, the case is chosen, because the case is of interest Stake , or it is chosen for theoretical reasons Eisenhardt and Graebner For within-case and across-case analyses, the emphasis in data collection is on interviews, archives, and participant observation Flick : ; Mason : Case study researchers usually triangulate data as part of their data collection strategy, resulting in a detailed case description Burns ; Dooley ; Eisenhardt ; Ridder ; Stake : In single case study research, the opportunity to open a black box arises by looking at deeper causes of the phenomenon Fiss The case data can lead to the identification of patterns and relationships, creating, extending, or testing a theory Gomm et al.
Potential advantages of multiple case study research are seen in cross-case analysis. A systematic comparison in cross-case analysis reveals similarities and differences and how they affect findings. Each case is analyzed as a single case on its own to compare the mechanisms identified, leading to theoretical conclusions Vaughan : As a result, case study research has different objectives in terms of contributing to theory.
On the one hand, case study research has its strength in creating theory by expanding constructs and relationships within distinct settings e. On the other hand, case study research is a means of advancing theories by comparing similarities and differences among cases e. Unfortunately, such diverging objectives are often neglected in case study research. Therefore, this paper compares case study research designs. Such comparisons have been conducted previously regarding their philosophical assumptions and orientations, key elements of case study research, their range of application, and the lacks of methodological procedures in publications.
This paper aims to compare case study research designs regarding their contributions to theory. Case study research designs will be analyzed regarding their various strengths on a theory continuum. Edmondson and McManus initiated a debate on whether the stage of theory fits to research questions, style of data collection, and analyses. Corley and Gioia extended this debate by focusing on the practicality of theory and the importance of prescience.
While these papers consider the whole range of methodological approaches on a higher level, they treat case studies as relatively homogeneous. This paper aims to delve into a deeper level of analysis by solely focusing on case study research designs and their respective fit on this theory continuum.
This approach offers a more fine-grained understanding that sheds light on the diversity of case study research designs in terms of their differential theory contributions. Such a deep level of analysis on case study research designs enables more rigor in theory contribution.
To analyze alternative case study research designs regarding their contributions to theory, I engage into the following steps:. First, differences between case study research designs are depicted.
I outline and compare the case study research designs with regard to the key elements, esp. These differences result in a portfolio of various case study research designs.
Second, I outline and substantiate a theory continuum that varies between theory-building, theory development, and testing theory. Based on this continuum, I analyze and discuss each of the case study research designs with regard to their location on the theory continuum. This analysis is based on a detailed differentiation of the phenomenon inside or outside the theory , the status of the theory, research strategy, and methods.
As a result, the contribution to the literature is a portfolio of case study research designs explicating their unique contributions to theory. The contribution of this paper lies in a fine-grained analysis of the interplay of methods and theory van Maanen et al.
It demonstrates that different designs have various strengths and that there is a fit between case study designs and different points on a theory continuum. If there is no clarity as to whether a case study design aims at creating, elaborating, extending, or testing theory, the contribution to theory is difficult to identify for authors, reviewers, and readers. Consequently, this paper aims to clarify at which point of the continuum of theory case study research designs can provide distinct contributions that can be identified beyond their traditionally claimed exploratory character.
Only few papers have compared case study research designs so far. In all of these comparisons, the number of designs differs as well as the issues under consideration.
The core of the debate concerns a difference between in-depth single case studies classical case study to a focus on the comparison of multiple cases. Dyer and Wilkins : claim that the essence of a case study lies in the careful study of a single case to identify new relationships and, as a result, question the Eisenhardt approach which puts a lot of emphasis on comparison of multiple cases.
Eisenhardt, on the contrary, claims that multiple cases allow replication between cases and is, therefore, seen as a means of corroboration of propositions Eisenhardt Classical case studies prefer deep descriptions of a single case, considering the context to reveal insights into the single case and by that elaborate new theories. The comparison of multiple cases, therefore, tends—in the opinion of Dyer and Wilkens—to surface descriptions.
This weakens the possibility of context-related, rich descriptions. Dooley : briefly takes the case study research designs by Yin and Eisenhardt as exemplars of how the processes of case study research can be applied. The approach by Eisenhardt is seen as an exemplar that advances conceptualization and operationalization in the phases of theory-building, while the approach by Yin is seen as exemplar that advances minimally conceptualized and operationalized existing theory.
Baxter and Jack describe the designs by Yin and Stake to demonstrate key elements of qualitative case study. The authors outline and carefully compare the approaches by Yin and Stake in conducting the research process, neglecting philosophical differences and theoretical goals. Piekkari et al. They specifically exhibit the role of philosophical assumptions, establishing differences in conventionally accepted practices of case study research in published papers.
The authors analyze published case studies in four international business journals. The analysis reveals that, in contrast to the richness of case study approaches, the majority of published case studies draw on positivistic foundations and are narrowly declared as explorative with a lack of clarity of the theoretical purpose of the case study. Case studies are often designed as multiple case studies with cross-sectional designs based on interviews. Welch et al.
The typology is used to analyze case studies from three highly ranked journals over a year period for whether the theorizing modes are exercised in the practice of publishing case studies.
As a result, the authors identify a strong emphasis on the exploratory function of case studies, neglecting the richness of case study methods to challenge, refine, verify, and test theories Welch et al. As a result, the comparisons reveal a range of case study designs which are rarely discussed.
In contrast, published case studies are mainly introduced as exploratory design. In addition, comparisons containing an analysis of published case studies reveal a low degree in accuracy when applying case study methods. What is missing is a comparison of case study research designs with regard to differences in the contribution to theory. Case study designs have different purposes in theory contribution. Confusing these potential contributions by inconsistently utilizing the appropriate methods weakens the contribution of case studies to scientific progress and, by that, damages the reputation of case studies.
To conduct such a comparison, I consider the four case study research approaches of Yin, Eisenhardt, Burawoy, and Stake for the following reasons.
These approaches are the main representatives of case study research design outlined in the comparisons elaborated above Baxter and Jack ; Dooley ; Dyer and Wilkins ; Piekkari et al. I follow especially the argument by Piekkari et al. The chosen approaches have an explicit and detailed methodology which can be reconstructed and compared with regard to their theory contribution.
Although there are variations in the application of the designs, to the best of my knowledge, the designs represent the spectrum of case study methodologies. A comparison of these methodologies revealed main distinguishable differences. I did not consider descriptions of case study research in text books which focus more or less on general descriptions of the common characteristics of case studies, but do not emphasize differences in methodologies and theory contribution.
Finally, although often cited in the methodological section of case studies, books are not considered which concentrate on data analysis in qualitative research per se Miles et al. Therefore, to analyze the contribution of case study research to the scientific development, it needs to compare explicit methodology.
This comparison will be outlined in the following sections with regard to main methodological steps: the role of the case, the collection of data, and the analysis of data. A popular template for building theory from case studies is a paper by Eisenhardt It follows a dramaturgy with a precise order of single steps for constructing a case study and is one of the most cited papers in methods sections Ravenswood This is impressive for two reasons.
On the one hand, Eisenhardt herself has provided a broader spectrum of case study research designs in her own empirical papers, for example, by combining theory-building and theory elaboration Bingham and Eisenhardt These developments do not seem to be seriously considered by most authors, as differences and elaborations of this spectrum are rarely found in publications.
Therefore, in the following, I focus on the standards provided by Eisenhardt and Eisenhardt and Graebner as exemplary guidelines. The research question may stem from a research gap meaning that the research question is of relevance.
Cases are chosen for theoretical reasons: for the likelihood that the cases offer insights into the phenomenon of interest. Theoretical sampling is deemed appropriate for illuminating and extending constructs and identifying relationships for the phenomenon under investigation Eisenhardt and Graebner Cases are sampled if they provide an unusual phenomenon, replicate findings from other cases, use contrary replication, and eliminate alternative explanations.
With respect to data collection, qualitative data are the primary choice. Data collection is based on triangulation, where interviews, documents, and observations are often combined. A combination of qualitative data and quantitative data is possible as well Eisenhardt : Data analysis is conducted via the search for within-case patterns and cross-case patterns.
Systematic procedures are conducted to compare the emerging constructs and relationships with the data, eventually leading to new theory. A good exemplar for this design is the investigation of technology collaborations Davis and Eisenhardt The purpose of this paper is to understand processes by which technology collaborations support innovations.
Eight technology collaborations among ten firms were sampled for theoretical reasons. Qualitative and quantitative data were used from semi-structured interviews, public and private data, materials provided by informants, corporate intranets, and business publications.
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The book offers a clear definition of the case study method as well as discussion of design and analysis techniques. Education Details: As an academic researcher the use of Case Study Methods is essential to many qualitative studies. Yin was an early adapter to Case Study, and continues to lead the way with best practices and insight on how best to utilize Case Study Methods. Invaluable work for academia, and easy to follow and understand for new and seasoned researchers alike. Education Details: Robert Yin's comprehensive presentation covers all aspects of the case study method--from problem definition, design, and data collection, to data analysis and composition and reporting.
The objective of this paper is to highlight similarities and differences across various case study designs and to analyze their respective contributions to theory. Although different designs reveal some common underlying characteristics, a comparison of such case study research designs demonstrates that case study research incorporates different scientific goals and collection and analysis of data. This paper relates this comparison to a more general debate of how different research designs contribute to a theory continuum. The fine-grained analysis demonstrates that case study designs fit differently to the pathway of the theory continuum.
Она чувствовала, что здесь что-то не то, но не могла сообразить, что. Она достаточно хорошо знала Танкадо и знала, что он боготворил простоту. Его доказательства, его программы всегда отличали кристальная ясность и законченность.
Ровно год назад он разбил здесь себе голову. Сегодня годовщина.
Что за чепуха. И ради этого он вызвал меня в субботу. - Как сказать… - Она заколебалась.
Какая разница?. - Тебе больше нечем заняться? - Сьюзан метнула на него недовольный взгляд. - Хочешь от меня избавиться? - надулся Хейл. - Если честно - да, - Не надо так, Сью, Ты меня оскорбляешь. Глаза Сьюзан сузились. Она терпеть не могла, когда он называл ее Сью.
Она была блистательна и прекрасна, равной ей он не мог себе даже представить. Его жена долго терпела, но, увидев Сьюзан, потеряла последнюю надежду. Бев Стратмор никогда его ни в чем не обвиняла. Она превозмогала боль сколько могла, но ее силы иссякли. Она сказала ему, что их брак исчерпал себя, что она не собирается до конца дней жить в тени другой женщины. Вой сирен вывел его из задумчивости.
Цепная мутация. Она знала, что цепная мутация представляет собой последовательность программирования, которая сложнейшим образом искажает данные. Это обычное явление для компьютерных вирусов, особенно таких, которые поражают крупные блоки информации. Из почты Танкадо Сьюзан знала также, что цепные мутации, обнаруженные Чатрукьяном, безвредны: они являются элементом Цифровой крепости. - Когда я впервые увидел эти цепи, сэр, - говорил Чатрукьян, - я подумал, что фильтры системы Сквозь строй неисправны. Но затем я сделал несколько тестов и обнаружил… - Он остановился, вдруг почувствовав себя не в своей тарелке.
Я знаю, - услышала Сьюзан собственный едва слышный голос. - Нам нужна ваша помощь. Она с трудом сдерживала слезы. - Стратмор… он… - Мы знаем, - не дал ей договорить Бринкерхофф. - Он обошел систему Сквозь строй.
Бринкерхофф смотрел на массивную фигуру директора, возвышающуюся над письменным столом. Таким он его еще никогда не. Фонтейн, которого он знал, был внимателен к мелочам и требовал самой полной информации.
Беккер убрал блокнот и ручку. Игра в шарады закончилась. Дело принимает совсем дурной оборот. - Итак, кольцо взял немец.
- Я, пожалуй, пойду. Меня ждет самолет. - Он еще раз оглядел комнату. - Вас подбросить в аэропорт? - предложил лейтенант - Мой Мото Гуччи стоит у подъезда.
Профессионалы Интернета стали глазами и ушами АНБ. Люди, занимавшиеся нелегальной деятельностью с использованием электронной почты, быстро убедились в том, что их секреты больше не являются их частным достоянием. ФБР, Налоговое управление, Агентство по борьбе с наркотиками и другие правоохранительные агентства США - с помощью опытных штатных хакеров - сумели арестовать и предать суду гораздо больше преступников.
Коммандер, вы ни в чем не виноваты! - воскликнула. - Если бы Танкадо был жив, мы могли бы заключить с ним сделку, и у нас был бы выбор. Но Стратмор ее не слышал.
Ей было не по себе, хотя пока, можно сказать, им сопутствовала удача. Чудесным образом Северная Дакота обнаружился прямо под носом и теперь попал в западню. Правда, оставалась еще одна проблема - Дэвид до сих пор не нашел второй экземпляр ключа. Она молилась, чтобы его усилия увенчались успехом.
Metrics details.Itladpoibloc 20.05.2021 at 06:19
Yin, Robert K. Case study research: design and methods / Robert K. Yin.- 3rd ed. and chapters will appear largely similar to those of the second edition. The.Matilda V. 21.05.2021 at 16:57
Using selected examples from within the International Relations literature, this paper aims to provide a brief overview of the main principles and distinctive advantages and limitations of single case study analysis.Leone A. 22.05.2021 at 22:04
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