File Name: industrial noise and vibration control .zip
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The development of technology has lead to widespread increase in machinery and also increase in the number of industries, with this also came the noise.
Noise interferes with the efficiency of the work done by the employees whose work is highly skilled and involves decision making. The risk involved in exposure to the noise for 8 working hours is very high.
In this paper, we discuss the mechanisms which are used in the industries for reducing the amount of noise in a refinery; engineering applications and protective techniques which reduce the impact of noise; administrative techniques reducing the amount of exposure of noise to the worker.
Exposure to that high dB of noise can cause some serious health effects Nagi, Dhillon et al. Some other effects related to mental health include: loss of productivity in work Cohen, Evans et al. It is grim to measure the effects of noise on every individual, since the characteristics of every individual are different along with the resistance levels of the individual to the exposure to noise Ferguson The response of a health ear varies for different noise levels, and the response is given in the table below Harris Exposure to noise should be kept on check due to the adverse effects of noise on the human ear.
The techniques or the technology used for the reduction of noise or noise control depends on the level of noise reduction required de Kluijver and Stoter Reducing the noise at the source itself is the effective action against excessive noise.
Industrial noise can be controlled by redesigning or replacing the noisy equipment Jerng and Sodini If the problem still persists, then the following techniques can be adopted: structural modifications, installation of mufflers, mechanical modifications, vibration isolators, and enclosures to protect from noise. In industries, noise control at the source is achieved by adopting techniques like: using noise absorbing materials—carpets, acoustic foams, and rubber mats Yilmaz Reducing the vibrations—material vibrations can be controlled through proper foundations using paddings made of rubber, reducing the noise levels caused by the vibrations.
Machinery selection—ideal selection of equipment also plays a vital role in noise reduction. Machine Maintenance: Not only noise control but also the life of the machine will increase because of regular maintenance Lee et al. Loose parts and vibrations in machines are signs that the machine or equipment is not properly maintained. These conditions lead to the generation of unnecessary noise. So, proper maintenance is an important technique in noise control. The economical noise control mechanisms, yet effective, involve three components with reference to the components of a noise problem Kluger and DeNisi They are: the sound energy from the source, diverting the sound energy, and recipient protection.
Industrial noise control can be controlled by not only using the high-priced noise reduction technology. Low cost or economical techniques are also available for reducing the noise. In an industry, there can be various noise or sound energy sources. All of the above-listed noise-producing sources can be removed with proper maintenance or timely maintenance. It generally includes replacing the part which is producing the sound energy or repairing the part. The greater the distance between the sound energy source and the employee, the lees will be the exposure of the employee to noise Lie et al.
If the employee had to work continuously, then providing a soundproof booth will suffice. Optimization of a process involves money, personnel, equipment, resources, which are used effectively to achieve optimization.
Optimization can only be possible if proper maintenance is in place. Changing the operating procedures, altering the equipment, or even substitution the materials, which means that noise is controlled at the source itself rather than controlling after the sound energy is produced. Relocating an equipment may also be a feasible option for reduction of noise. The idea is to disperse the noise-producing equipment to increase the distance, which in turn reduces the noise levels.
Isolating the noisy equipment is also an option, if at all the equipment needs monitoring Parnell Employee rotation is the most successful technique, which comes under administrative controls, to protect the employees from continuous exposure to noise. Scheduling the production which involves running the production such that the noise levels are under acceptable limits. Employee resistance, skills, and wages are all the factors which are to be considered during employee rotation.
Using sound-absorbing materials to absorb the reflecting sound. Presence of reflecting materials may amplify the sound emitting from the sound energy source resulting in more noise than that is being produced Kolarik et al. This amplification can be controlled by covering or coating the reflective surfaces with sound-absorbing materials like baffles.
Vibrating equipment can also be a source of increased noise. This can be reduced by covering the equipment internally reducing the potential of amplification which eliminates the noise substantially. Possible solutions for noise reduction in industries are given below Lou Noise caused due to aerodynamic—intake and discharge through fan, jets, vents, etc.
Material substitution with sound-absorbing materials like wood, plastic or rubber. Noise can be reduced by making sure that AC frequency does no resonate with the machine parts. Industrial noise control is mainly based on four principles. They are namely: Isolation, Vibration isolation, Vibration damping, and Absorption. These principles give great results if they are used together rather being used individually. Vibration damping—sound-absorbing materials are called damping materials.
The mechanism involved in the damping materials is; the sound energy which is absorbed by the damping materials is converted to heat energy, this reduces the resonance effect of sound ultimately reducing the noise. Noise has many adverse health effects if an employee or worker is exposed to it continuously.
So, it is required to control the noise levels in industry by applying the noise control mechanisms like changing the operating procedures, timely maintenance, enclosure, or by applying engineering controls like isolation, enclosing the equipment, using sound-absorbing materials, also using administrative controls like, job rotation, relocating the equipment.
Noise reduction can also be done by removing the sound amplifying media or by separating the vibrating member of equipment. Noise reduction mechanisms are based on four main principles: Isolation, which is isolating the sound-producing equipment; Vibration isolation, isolating the vibrating member of equipment; Vibration damping, using viscoelastic sound-absorbing materials to absorb the sound energy produced; Absorption, using sound-absorbing materials to prevent the amplification of the sound energy, thus reducing the noise levels.
Advertisement Hide. Conference paper First Online: 23 January Download conference paper PDF. Human activities are the main source of noise, mainly due to technology development, urbanization, and also mainly industrialization Singh and Davar As the intensity of the noise increases along with the time of exposure, so is the risk U.
Replacing the equipment is generally the final technique. Purchasing equipment with latest technology Black However, it does not guarantee that purchasing a new equipment means the noise will be reduced. Sound energy sources Noise reduction techniques Noise caused due to aerodynamic—intake and discharge through fan, jets, vents, etc. Reducing the velocity 2.
Using sound-absorbing material 3. Installing silencers Flow in gas pipelines, compressors inlet and discharge pipes, etc. Increasing the pipe diameter 3. Avoiding sudden contractions in pipes 4.
Avoiding sudden change in direction Noise produced by metal contacts—grinders, mills, conveyors, etc. Material substitution with sound-absorbing materials like wood, plastic or rubber Stamping Substituting stamping with shearing Machine vibrations Usage of damping materials and rugged design Noise produced by turbines, fans and blowers Noise can be reduced by increasing the gap between the blades Sonic flow into safety relief valves Dissolving the excess energy or reducing the pressure drop Noise produce by siding equipment—conveyors, gears, etc.
Proper lubrication of the equipment can reduce noise substantially Noise amplification—pump house Covering the reflecting material with noise absorbing materials Noise produced by electromagnetic forces Noise can be reduced by making sure that AC frequency does no resonate with the machine parts. Isolation—separating the sound-producing equipment physically is called isolation.
This reduces the amplifying effect or the combined effect of noise which is the result of several noises producing equipment present in a single area.
Isolation along with enclosure constructed by using sound-absorbing material is an effective way for noise reduction. Transmission loss states the sound isolation properties of a material.
It is the amount of energy which is transmitted through the material in comparison with the amount of energy incident on the material Lou Vibration isolation—vibration objects are the main source of sound energy; therefore, vibration control is based on the noise reduction at the source.
Vibration isolation simply means separating the vibrating part from its source Norton and Karczub This may involve redesigning the machine or improving the maintenance of the equipment eliminating the imbalance or the removing the contact between the parts which are in motion and the parts which are stationary. Other techniques involve separating the vibrating member by using elastic materials to reduce the sound production. Commonly used elastic materials are rubber, cork, wood, neoprene, glass fiber, etc; the main function of the vibration isolator is to prevent the transmission of energy.
The lowest vibration frequency f to natural resonant frequency of the isolator f n ratio gives the effectiveness of the isolator Jensen, Jokel et al. Absorption—every material absorbs sound up to a certain limit. Sound absorption occurs when sound energy is absorbed by a material and that energy is converted to heat energy. Sound-absorbing materials commonly are porous in nature, light in weight, and are fibrous. Commonly used sound-absorbing materials in industry are: glass fiber, foams, acoustic ceiling, etc; the extent of sound energy absorbed by a material is denoted by its absorption coefficient and the performance of the material is expressed in terms of sabins.
Abatement, U. Information on levels of environmental noise requisite to protect public health and welfare with an adequate margin of safety Vol. Google Scholar. Bansal, R. AAU, Anand. Black, D. Method and apparatus for identifying locating or monitoring equipment or other objects. Google Patents.
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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. All too often, noise and vibration are ignored until well into the design phase, at which point incorporation of the most cost-effective solutions may not be possible. Successful noise and vibration control require consideration of both the track and the vehicle as a system, because the interaction of the wheel and the rail is responsible for the bulk of wayside noise and vibration impacts.
The development of technology has lead to widespread increase in machinery and also increase in the number of industries, with this also came the noise. Noise interferes with the efficiency of the work done by the employees whose work is highly skilled and involves decision making. The risk involved in exposure to the noise for 8 working hours is very high. In this paper, we discuss the mechanisms which are used in the industries for reducing the amount of noise in a refinery; engineering applications and protective techniques which reduce the impact of noise; administrative techniques reducing the amount of exposure of noise to the worker. Exposure to that high dB of noise can cause some serious health effects Nagi, Dhillon et al.
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Abstract A strong issue on the development of new vehicles is the weight reduction, required for the reduction of the fuel consumption and the CO2 emissions. The current vehicles have already a structure optimised to have low weight without reducing the required performances. However, there are some components of the structure that can be further reduced in weight still matching the resistance, crash and fatigue performances, but giving a poor performance in terms of noise and vibrations and increasing both the structure-borne and air-borne sound transmission. In the European FP7 project Green City Car, flexible, integrated passive and active solutions are developed permitting noise and vibration attenuation in vehicles equipped with the next generation of highly fuel-efficient two- or three cylinder internal combustion engines ICE.
Save extra with 2 Offers. About The Book Mechanical Vibrations And Industrial Noise Control Book Summary: Designed to serve as a textbook for undergraduate and postgraduate students of Mechanical Engineering, this book helps promote student understanding of complex phenomena of vibration technology.
Aug Air-conditioning condenser-compressor noise in multi-story apartment buildings Authors: Jack B. Jul
This is the update, 10 years on…. These are 10 simple engineering industrial noise control techniques with very wide application. They provide substantial noise reductions quickly at very low cost with no effect on operation or hygiene. And they are often self-financing…. Simply knowing that the technology exists can change the thought processes associated with noise control. Adapting and applying the techniques: often free by email.
hazarsiiraksamlari.org SOLUTIONS FOR Noise Control and Vibration Isolation noise control problem includes three basic components: the.
Noise control and vibration control treatments are not one-size-fit-all solutions. Different control mechanisms and strategies should be used to solve different problems. DEICON has the experience and the know-how to provide the most suitable solutions to variety of industrial, architectural and marine noise and vibration problems. The traditional passive damping methods include the use of broadband dissipative solutions such as sound absorbing material for sound , viscoelastic, viscous, and friction dampers for vibration , as well as narrowband reactive solutions tuned dampers such as Helmholtz resonators for sound and tuned mass dampers for vibration. Active damping involves the use of actuators e. When the disturbance s is are at certain frequency ies , i. In this case, passive or active cancellation solutions should be used to quiet the system.
Ты должна признать, Сьюзан, что этот черный ход был придуман для того, чтобы ввести мир в заблуждение и преспокойно читать электронную почту. По мне, так поделом Стратмору.
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Поверь. Поэтому я и узнал о его намерении модифицировать Цифровую крепость. Я читал все его мозговые штурмы.
Но этого было достаточно. СЛЕДОПЫТ ИЩЕТ… - Следопыт? - произнес .