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Advantages And Disadvantages Of Presidential System Pdf

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Some representative and constitutional democracies have a presidential system of government, which is based on the separation and sharing of powers among three independent and coordinate branches of government: legislative, executive, and judicial. The United States is the originator and primary example of the presidential system, a model that is followed in only a few other democracies, such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and the Philippines.

No doubt that Presidential form of Government has many advantages and greater stability and sanity in the politics of a country. However, it has the following drawbacks Latest Updates.

Recibido: 11 de noviembre de Over the past two decades, Mexico has gone from an authoritarian regime to an electoral democracy. Although this change is undoubtedly positive, the institutional engineering in place and the balance of power among institutions has led to increased political instability and a latent risk of political paralysis.

Presidential System

Two-party system , political system in which the electorate gives its votes largely to only two major parties and in which one or the other party can win a majority in the legislature. The United States is the classic example of a nation with a two-party system. The contrasts between two-party and multiparty systems are often exaggerated. Within each major party in the United States, the Republicans and the Democrats, many factions are struggling for power.

The presence of divergent interests under a single party canopy masks a process of struggle and compromise that under a multiparty system is out in the open. Major influences favourable to the two-party system are the use of single-member districts for the election of representatives, the presidential system, and the absence of proportional representation. In Great Britain and the United States members of the national representative assemblies are chosen from single-member districts, and the candidate polling the largest number of votes is the winner.

Such an electoral system compels a party to strive for a majority of the votes in a district or other electoral area. Usually only two fairly evenly matched parties may successfully compete for office in a single-member district, and a third party suffers recurring defeat unless it can swallow up one of the other parties.

Parties do not thrive under the certainty of defeat. A third party may have a substantial popular following and yet capture few seats in the representative body. With, for instance, 20 percent of the popular vote spread evenly over an entire country, such a party would not win a single seat. Under full proportional representation , it would be entitled to 20 percent of the seats in a legislative body.

The rise of the Labour Party in Great Britain, for example, virtually deprived the Liberal Party of parliamentary seats even when it had a substantial popular following. In addition to the single-member-district system, in the United States the presidential system induces parties to seek majority support. No fractional party can elect its presidential candidate, and third parties in national politics have proved to be protest movements more than serious electoral enterprises.

The two-party system is said to promote governmental stability because a single party can win a majority in the parliament and govern. In a multiparty country, on the other hand, the formation of a government depends on the maintenance of a coalition of parties with enough total strength to form a parliamentary majority.

The weakness of the ties that bind the coalition may threaten the continuance of a cabinet in power. The stability shown by the government of the United States has not been entirely due to its party system, it has been argued, but has been promoted also by the fixed tenure and strong constitutional position of the president.

The two-party system moderates the animosities of political strife. To appeal for the support of a majority of voters, a party must present a program sympathetic to the desires of most of the politically active elements of the population. In the formulation of such a program an effort must be made to reconcile the conflicting interests of different sectors of the population.

This enables the party, if expedient, to resist demands that it commit itself without reservation to the policies urged by any particular extremist element. In effect, the party is a coalition for the purpose of campaigning for office. In Great Britain and Canada differences in program and in composition between the two major parties have been perhaps greater than in the United States.

Nevertheless, in all of these countries a broad area of agreement exists among the leading parties. With two major parties of similar views and of approximately equal strength competing for control of a government, it is possible for governmental control to alternate between the parties without shifts in policy so radical as to incite minorities to resistance. Two-party system Article Media Additional Info. Print Cite verified Cite. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.

Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.

Symbols of the two main American political parties, the elephant Republican Party and the donkey Democratic Party. Read More on This Topic. A fundamental distinction must be made between the two-party system as it is found in the United States and as it is found in Great Britain Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now.

Learn More in these related Britannica articles: political party: Two-party systems. A fundamental distinction must be made between the two-party system as it is found in the United States and as it is found in Great Britain. Although two major parties dominate political life in the two countries, the system operates in quite different…. Because proportional representation does not favour large parties over smaller ones, as does the winner-take-all system, in countries with proportional representation there are almost always three or more parties represented in the legislature, and a coalition government see also coalition ….

In order to win a national election, a party must appeal to a broad base of voters and a wide spectrum of interests. The two major parties have tended to adopt centrist political programs, and sometimes there are only minor differences between them…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.

Two-party system

Two-party system , political system in which the electorate gives its votes largely to only two major parties and in which one or the other party can win a majority in the legislature. The United States is the classic example of a nation with a two-party system. The contrasts between two-party and multiparty systems are often exaggerated. Within each major party in the United States, the Republicans and the Democrats, many factions are struggling for power. The presence of divergent interests under a single party canopy masks a process of struggle and compromise that under a multiparty system is out in the open.


One major advantage of the presidential system of government is that the President has a free hand in appointing his ministers and other government appointees.


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The United States and many other democracies follow Presidential system of government. In this system, the President is both head of state and government. Unlike the Parliamentary system of government, there is clear separation between legislature and executive.

The struggle for sustaining democracy has lead emerging democracies, and also democratic countries, to practice different ways of managing democracy. What kind of institutions is the best way to manage democracy still has no a clear answer and debatable.

Managing Editor: Ana Harvey. In the end, the Convention delegates settled for a stronger, rather than a weaker chief executive with the powers of commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and with the power to declare war. The president would be elected by an electoral college, and serve a four-year term with no limits on the right to seek re-election.

This is because the executive branch is dependent upon the direct or indirect support of the legislative branch and often includes members of the legislature. Thus, this would amount to the executive as the majority party or coalition of parties in the legislature possessing more votes in order to pass legislation. In a presidential system , the executive is often chosen independently from the legislature.

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