File Name: structure and function of biogas plant .zip
Note that this handbook will be regularly updated with new content about biogas, anaerobic digestion, and the best practices of our industry. Why Building Biogas Plants?
It mainly comprises of hydro-carbon which is combustible and can produce heat and energy when burnt. Bio-gas is produced through a bio-chemical process in which certain types of bacteria convert the biological wastes into useful bio-gas. Since the useful gas originates from biological process, it has been termed as bio-gas.
Methane gas is the main constituent of biogas. The process of bio-gas production is anaerobic in nature and takes place in two stages. The two stages have been termed as acid formation stage and methane formation stage. In the acid formation stage, the bio-degradable complex organic compounds present in the waste materials are acted upon by a group of acid forming bacteria present in the dung. Since the organic acids are the main products in this stage, it is known as acid forming stage.
In the second stage, groups of methanogenic bacteria act upon the organic acids to produce methane gas. Although, cattle dung has been recognized as the chief raw material for bio-gas plants, other materials like night-soil, poultry litter and agricultural wastes can also be used. The size of the biogas plant is to be decided based on availability of raw material.
It is generally said that, average cattle yield is about 10 kg dung per day. For eg. Hence, a minimum of 4 cattle is required to generate the required quantity of cow dung. One Cu. Note : For free grazing animals the availability of dung may be taken as 50 per cent of the amount given in the table. Shakthi-Surabhi is a kitchen waste based biogas plant. It works on similar principles of a traditional biogas plant, but has been modified to suit urban requirements also. The unit consists of an inlet waste feed pipe, a digester, gas holder, water jacket, a gas delivery system and an outlet pipe.
In what way does this unit promise to be a better alternative to the conventional biogas plants? Performance : About 5 kg of waste is required for a 1 cubic metre plant which is equal to 0. It is estimated that cubic metres of biogas could produce 5 KW of energy to meet a hour power requirement of a house The process is hygienic and is devoid of odour and flies.
The unit also helps in controlling climate change effects and arrests green house gases, and the digested outlet slurry of the unit acts as good organic manure For more details, contact : Vivekananda Kendra, -Natural Resources Development Project, VK-Nardep, Vivekanandapuram, Kanyakumari - , Tamil Nadu, Email. Source : The Hindu. The Gaushala has a herd of around cows. A kitchen waste based biogas plant has been installed at Nursery site for environmental friendly disposal of the waste generated in kitchens of various canteens in BARC premises.
It is expected that the plant can process all the waste generated in these canteens. Process: The waste generated in kitchen in the form of vegetable refuge, stale cooked and uncooked food, extracted tea powder, waste milk and milk products can all be processed in this plant. There are two important modifications made in the conventional design of the biogas plant in BARC :.
A high temperature is maintained in the predigestor tank. The growth of thermophiles in the predigestor tank is assured by mixing the waste with hot water and maintaining the temperature in the range of o C. The hot water supply is from a solar heater. Even one-hour sunlight is sufficient per day to meet the needs of hot water. Another important aspect in smoother running of a biogas plant based on solid waste is how effectively one can avoid the choking of the plant.
This choking may occur due to thick biomass that may be inaccessible to the micro-organisms to digest it. The logical solution to such a problem is to convert the solid waste into slurry that would be far more accessible for the microbial action.
A high power mixer to convert the solid waste into slurry can achieve this purpose. After the predigestor tank, the slurry enters the main tank where it undergoes mainly anaerobic degradation by a consortium of archaebacteria belonging to Methanococcus group.
These bacteria are naturally present in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals cattle. They produce mainly methane from the cellulosic materials in the slurry.
The undigested lignocellulosic and hemicellulosic materials then are passed on in the settling tank. After about a month high quality manure can be dug out from the settling tanks. There is no odour to the manure at all. The organic contents are high and this can improve the quality of humus in soil, which in turn is responsible for the fertility. As the gas is generated in the main tank, the dome is slowly lifted up. It reaches a maximum height of 8 feet holding 35 m 3 of gas.
It is taken through GI pipeline to the lamp posts. Drains for condensed water vapour are provided on line. This gas burns with a blue flame and can be used for cooking as well. The gas generated in this plant is used for gas lights fitted around the plant. The potential use of this gas would be for a canteen. The manure generated is high quality and can be used in fields. Success of this biogas plant depends a great deal on proper segregation of the kitchen waste.
The materials that can pose problems to the efficient running of plant are coconut shells and coir, egg shells, onion peels, bones and plastic pieces. Steel utensils like dishes, spoons etc. While bones, shells and utensils can spoil the mixer physically, onion peels, coir and plastic can have detrimental effects on microbial consortium in the predigester and main digestion tanks which could be disastrous for the plant.
Source : DAE. Register Login. Register for Webinar. What is biogas? Biogas production process Raw materials for biogas production Advantages of biogas production Components of biogas plants Points to be considered for construction of a biogas plant Useful Resources Average maximum biogas production from different feed stocks Average dung yield Requirement of cattle for various sizes of biogas plants Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio of various materials Calorific values of commonly used fuels Equivalent quantity of fuel for 1 m3 of biogas Biogas Requirements A format for cost estimation for establishing biogas plants Technical guidelines for establishment of Biogas plants Nutrient status of Biogas slurry Shakthi - Surabhi - Biogas plant for households Biogas enrichment and bottling technology - a pilot demonstration unit Kitchen Waste Based Biogas Plant Related Resources.
Biogas production process The process of bio-gas production is anaerobic in nature and takes place in two stages. Raw materials for biogas production Although, cattle dung has been recognized as the chief raw material for bio-gas plants, other materials like night-soil, poultry litter and agricultural wastes can also be used. Advantages of biogas production It is a eco-friendly fuel. The required raw materials for biogas production are available abundantly in villages. It not only produces biogas, but also gives us nutrient rich slurry that can be used for crop production.
It prevents the health hazards of smoke in poorly ventilated rural households that use dung cake and fire-wood for cooking. It helps to keep the environment clean, as there would be no open heap of dung or other waste materials that attract flies, insects and infections Availability of biogas would reduce the use of firewood and hence trees could be saved. Components of biogas plants Mixing tank - The feed material dung is collected in the mixing tank. Sufficient water is added and the material is thoroughly mixed till a homogeneous slurry is formed.
Digester - The slurry is fermented inside the digester and biogas is produced through bacterial action. Gas holder or gas storage dome - The biogas gets collected in the gas holder, which holds the gas until the time of consumption. Outlet pipe - The digested slurry is discharged into the outlet tank either through the outlet pipe or the opening provided in the digester. Gas pipeline - The gas pipeline carries the gas to the point of utilization, such as a stove or lamp.
The water table should not be very high. Adequate supply of water should be there at the plant site. The plant should get clear sunshine during most part of the day. The plant site should be well ventilated. A minimum distance of 1. It should be away from any tree to prevent root interference. It should be at least 15m away from any well used for drinking water purpose. Availability of raw materials The size of the biogas plant is to be decided based on availability of raw material.
Useful Resources Average maximum biogas production from different feed stocks Sl. Your Rating. All content appearing on the vikaspedia portal is through collaborative effort of vikaspedia and its partners.
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Harvesting valuable bioproducts from various renewable feedstocks is necessary for the critical development of a sustainable bioeconomy. Anaerobic digestion is a well-established technology for the conversion of wastewater and solid feedstocks to energy with the additional potential for production of process intermediates of high market values e. In recent years, first-generation biofuels typically derived from food crops have been widely utilized as a renewable source of energy. The environmental and socioeconomic limitations of such strategy, however, have led to the development of second-generation biofuels utilizing, amongst other feedstocks, lignocellulosic biomass. In this context, the anaerobic digestion of perennial grass holds great promise for the conversion of sustainable renewable feedstock to energy and other process intermediates. The advancement of this technology however, and its implementation for industrial applications, relies on a greater understanding of the microbiome underpinning the process. To this end, microbial communities recovered from replicated anaerobic bioreactors digesting grass were analyzed.
The structure of a biogas plant is made up of large “digester” tanks, which are covered over with a exible plastic membrane in which collects the biogas, and stores it until it is used. Smaller tanks store the feed materials, and pumps move it around through pipes as needed.
It mainly comprises of hydro-carbon which is combustible and can produce heat and energy when burnt. Bio-gas is produced through a bio-chemical process in which certain types of bacteria convert the biological wastes into useful bio-gas. Since the useful gas originates from biological process, it has been termed as bio-gas. Methane gas is the main constituent of biogas.
The complexity of the microbial communities and metabolic pathways involved in the microbiological process of biogas production is poorly understood and numerous microorganisms in the fermentation sample of the biogas plant are still unclassified or unknown. The structure and function of microbial communities and the effects of the addition of trace elements are needed to be known, to control and channel the energy sources microbes produce and to capture and store the useful by-products or for targeted screening of novel enzymes. In this review, we discussed an emerging idea that Metagenome sequence data from a biogas-producing microbial community residing in a fermenter of a biogas plant provide the basis for a rational approach to improve the biotechnological process of biogas production. The composition and gene content of a biogas-producing consortium can be determined through metagenomic approach which allows the design of the optimal microbial community structure for any biogas plant for the significant progress in the efficacy and economic improvement of biogas production and biofertilizer of either balanced nutrition or rich in specific element for plant growth produced from the sludge of biogas plant.
Biogas is the mixture of gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen anaerobically , primarily consisting of methane and carbon dioxide. Biogas can be produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste , manure , municipal waste , plant material , sewage , green waste or food waste. Biogas is a renewable energy source. Biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion with methanogen or anaerobic organisms , which digest material inside a closed system, or fermentation of biodegradable materials. Biogas is primarily methane CH 4 and carbon dioxide CO 2 and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulfide H 2 S , moisture and siloxanes.
The conversion of organic waste and residual biomass into biogas using anaerobic digestion is an excellent way to close carbon and nutrient cycles. However, most biogas plants still operate well below their optimal performance. A better understanding of the microbiology behind anaerobic digestion processes will pave the way for a more efficient and sustainable biogas production.
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- Ты только посмотри. Сквозь строй дважды отверг этот файл. Линейная мутация. И все-таки он пошел в обход. Интересно, о чем он. У Бринкерхоффа подогнулись колени. Он не мог понять, почему Мидж всегда права.
Джабба понимал, что ВР текущего кризиса со всей наглядностью объяснит то, что он хотел сказать.
Теперь начнутся судебные процессы, последуют обвинения, общественное негодование. Он много лет служил своей стране верой и правдой и не может допустить такого конца. Я просто добивался своей цели, - мысленно повторил .