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Different Types Of Vitamins And Their Function Pdf

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B vitamins

A vitamin is an organic molecule or a set of molecules closely related chemically, i. Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized in the organism, either at all or not in sufficient quantities, and therefore must be obtained through the diet. Vitamin C can be synthesized by some species but not by others; it is not a vitamin in the first instance but is in the second.

The term vitamin does not include the three other groups of essential nutrients : minerals , essential fatty acids , and essential amino acids. For example, there are eight vitamers of vitamin E : four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Some sources list fourteen vitamins, by including choline , [3] but major health organizations list thirteen: vitamin A as all- trans - retinol , all- trans -retinyl-esters, as well as all- trans - beta-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids , vitamin B 1 thiamine , vitamin B 2 riboflavin , vitamin B 3 niacin , vitamin B 5 pantothenic acid , vitamin B 6 pyridoxine , vitamin B 7 biotin , vitamin B 9 folic acid or folate , vitamin B 12 cobalamins , vitamin C ascorbic acid , vitamin D calciferols , vitamin E tocopherols and tocotrienols , and vitamin K phylloquinone and menaquinones.

Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions. Vitamin A acts as a regulator of cell and tissue growth and differentiation. Vitamin D provides a hormone-like function, regulating mineral metabolism for bones and other organs. The B complex vitamins function as enzyme cofactors coenzymes or the precursors for them. Vitamins C and E function as antioxidants. Before , the only source of vitamins was from food. Then, commercially produced tablets of yeast-extract vitamin B complex and semi-synthetic vitamin C became available.

Governments mandated addition of vitamins to staple foods such as flour or milk, referred to as food fortification , to prevent deficiencies. The term vitamin is derived from the word vitamine , which was coined in by Polish biochemist Casimir Funk , who isolated a complex of micronutrients essential to life, all of which he presumed to be amines.

Vitamins are classified as either water -soluble or fat-soluble. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve easily in water and, in general, are readily excreted from the body, to the degree that urinary output is a strong predictor of vitamin consumption. Vitamins A and D can accumulate in the body, which can result in dangerous hypervitaminosis. Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency due to malabsorption is of particular significance in cystic fibrosis.

Anti-vitamins are chemical compounds that inhibit the absorption or actions of vitamins. For example, avidin is a protein in raw egg whites that inhibits the absorption of biotin ; it is deactivated by cooking. Each vitamin is typically used in multiple reactions, and therefore most have multiple functions. Vitamins are essential for the normal growth and development of a multicellular organism.

Using the genetic blueprint inherited from its parents, a fetus develops from the nutrients it absorbs. It requires certain vitamins and minerals to be present at certain times. If there is serious deficiency in one or more of these nutrients, a child may develop a deficiency disease.

Even minor deficiencies may cause permanent damage. Once growth and development are completed, vitamins remain essential nutrients for the healthy maintenance of the cells, tissues, and organs that make up a multicellular organism; they also enable a multicellular life form to efficiently use chemical energy provided by food it eats, and to help process the proteins, carbohydrates, and fats required for cellular respiration.

For the most part, vitamins are obtained from the diet, but some are acquired by other means: for example, microorganisms in the gut flora produce vitamin K and biotin; and one form of vitamin D is synthesized in skin cells when they are exposed to a certain wavelength of ultraviolet light present in sunlight. Humans can produce some vitamins from precursors they consume: for example, vitamin A is synthesized from beta carotene ; and niacin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan.

The body's stores for different vitamins vary widely; vitamins A, D, and B 12 are stored in significant amounts, mainly in the liver , [20] and an adult's diet may be deficient in vitamins A and D for many months and B 12 in some cases for years, before developing a deficiency condition.

However, vitamin B 3 niacin and niacinamide is not stored in significant amounts, so stores may last only a couple of weeks.

Deficiencies of vitamins are classified as either primary or secondary. A primary deficiency occurs when an organism does not get enough of the vitamin in its food. A secondary deficiency may be due to an underlying disorder that prevents or limits the absorption or use of the vitamin, due to a "lifestyle factor", such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, or the use of medications that interfere with the absorption or use of the vitamin.

Well-researched human vitamin deficiencies involve thiamine beriberi , niacin pellagra , [34] vitamin C scurvy , folate neural tube defects and vitamin D rickets.

Some vitamins have documented acute or chronic toxicity at larger intakes, which is referred to as hypertoxicity. The European Union and the governments of several countries have established Tolerable upper intake levels ULs for those vitamins which have documented toxicity see table.

The USDA has conducted extensive studies on the percentage losses of various nutrients from food types and cooking methods. The effect of cutting vegetables can be seen from exposure to air and light. Water-soluble vitamins such as B and C dissolve into the water when a vegetable is boiled, and are then lost when the water is discarded.

In setting human nutrient guidelines, government organizations do not necessarily agree on amounts needed to avoid deficiency or maximum amounts to avoid the risk of toxicity. Governments are slow to revise information of this nature.

For the U. RDA US Recommended Dietary Allowances; higher for adults than for children, and may be even higher for women who are pregnant or lactating. In those who are otherwise healthy, there is little evidence that supplements have any benefits with respect to cancer or heart disease.

Europe has regulations that define limits of vitamin and mineral dosages for their safe use as dietary supplements. Most vitamins that are sold as dietary supplements are not supposed to exceed a maximum daily dosage referred to as the tolerable upper intake level UL or Upper Limit.

Vitamin products above these regulatory limits are not considered supplements and should be registered as prescription or non-prescription over-the-counter drugs due to their potential side effects. Dietary supplements often contain vitamins, but may also include other ingredients, such as minerals, herbs, and botanicals.

Scientific evidence supports the benefits of dietary supplements for persons with certain health conditions. Most countries place dietary supplements in a special category under the general umbrella of foods , not drugs.

As a result, the manufacturer, and not the government, has the responsibility of ensuring that its dietary supplement products are safe before they are marketed. Regulation of supplements varies widely by country. Even though product registration is not required, these regulations mandate production and quality control standards including testing for identity, purity and adulterations for dietary supplements. Likewise, monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia Ph. At the time, most but not all of the letters from F through to J were already designated, so the use of the letter K was considered quite reasonable.

The missing B vitamins were reclassified or determined not to be vitamins. For example, B 9 is folic acid and five of the folates are in the range B 11 through B Others, such as PABA formerly B 10 , are biologically inactive, toxic, or with unclassifiable effects in humans, or not generally recognised as vitamins by science, [61] such as the highest-numbered, which some naturopath practitioners call B 21 and B There are also nine lettered B complex vitamins e.

There are other D vitamins now recognised as other substances, which some sources of the same type number up to D 7. The controversial cancer treatment laetrile was at one point lettered as vitamin B There appears to be no consensus on any vitamins Q, R, T, V, W, X, Y or Z, nor are there substances officially designated as vitamins N or I, although the latter may have been another form of one of the other vitamins or a known and named nutrient of another type.

The value of eating certain foods to maintain health was recognized long before vitamins were identified. The ancient Egyptians knew that feeding liver to a person may help with night blindness , an illness now known to be caused by a vitamin A deficiency. In , the Scottish surgeon James Lind discovered that citrus foods helped prevent scurvy , a particularly deadly disease in which collagen is not properly formed, causing poor wound healing, bleeding of the gums , severe pain, and death.

This led to the nickname limey for British sailors. Lind's discovery, however, was not widely accepted by individuals in the Royal Navy's Arctic expeditions in the 19th century, where it was widely believed that scurvy could be prevented by practicing good hygiene , regular exercise, and maintaining the morale of the crew while on board, rather than by a diet of fresh food.

In the early 20th century, when Robert Falcon Scott made his two expeditions to the Antarctic , the prevailing medical theory at the time was that scurvy was caused by "tainted" canned food. During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the use of deprivation studies allowed scientists to isolate and identify a number of vitamins. Lipid from fish oil was used to cure rickets in rats , and the fat-soluble nutrient was called "antirachitic A".

Thus, the first "vitamin" bioactivity ever isolated, which cured rickets, was initially called "vitamin A"; however, the bioactivity of this compound is now called vitamin D.

He fed mice an artificial mixture of all the separate constituents of milk known at that time, namely the proteins , fats , carbohydrates , and salts.

The mice that received only the individual constituents died, while the mice fed by milk itself developed normally.

He made a conclusion that "a natural food such as milk must therefore contain, besides these known principal ingredients, small quantities of unknown substances essential to life. In East Asia , where polished white rice was the common staple food of the middle class, beriberi resulting from lack of vitamin B 1 was endemic. In , Takaki Kanehiro , a British-trained medical doctor of the Imperial Japanese Navy , observed that beriberi was endemic among low-ranking crew who often ate nothing but rice, but not among officers who consumed a Western-style diet.

With the support of the Japanese navy, he experimented using crews of two battleships ; one crew was fed only white rice, while the other was fed a diet of meat, fish, barley, rice, and beans. The group that ate only white rice documented crew members with beriberi and 25 deaths, while the latter group had only 14 cases of beriberi and no deaths. This convinced Takaki and the Japanese Navy that diet was the cause of beriberi, but they mistakenly believed that sufficient amounts of protein prevented it.

In , the first vitamin complex was isolated by Japanese scientist Umetaro Suzuki , who succeeded in extracting a water-soluble complex of micronutrients from rice bran and named it aberic acid later Orizanin. He published this discovery in a Japanese scientific journal. In Polish-born biochemist Casimir Funk , working in London, isolated the same complex of micronutrients and proposed the complex be named "vitamine". Funk proposed the hypothesis that other diseases, such as rickets, pellagra, coeliac disease, and scurvy could also be cured by vitamins.

Max Nierenstein a friend and reader of Biochemistry at Bristol University reportedly suggested the "vitamine" name from "vital amine". In , Jack Cecil Drummond proposed that the final "e" be dropped to deemphasize the "amine" reference, hence "vitamin," after researchers began to suspect that not all "vitamines" in particular, vitamin A have an amine component.

He called this "the anti-beriberi factor", which was later identified as vitamin B 1 , thiamine. In , Paul Karrer elucidated the correct structure for beta-carotene , the main precursor of vitamin A, and identified other carotenoids. For their investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B 2 , they both received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in In , George Wald was awarded the Nobel Prize along with Ragnar Granit and Haldan Keffer Hartline for his discovery that vitamin A could participate directly in a physiological process.

Murphy , Alexander R. Todd , and Dorothy Hodgkin Once discovered, vitamins were actively promoted in articles and advertisements in McCall's , Good Housekeeping , and other media outlets. They promoted foods such as yeast cakes, a source of B vitamins, on the basis of scientifically-determined nutritional value, rather than taste or appearance. Yoder is credited with first using the term vitamania , in , to describe the appeal of relying on nutritional supplements rather than on obtaining vitamins from a varied diet of foods.

The continuing preoccupation with a healthy lifestyle has led to an obsessive consumption of additives the beneficial effects of which are questionable. The term vitamin was derived from "vitamine", a compound word coined in by the Polish biochemist Casimir Funk [10] [77] when working at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine.

The name is from vital and amine , meaning amine of life, because it was suggested in that the organic micronutrient food factors that prevent beriberi and perhaps other similar dietary-deficiency diseases might be chemical amines.

Vitamins and Minerals

A Harvard Health article. Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients because they perform hundreds of roles in the body. There is a fine line between getting enough of these nutrients which is healthy and getting too much which can end up harming you. Eating a healthy diet remains the best way to get sufficient amounts of the vitamins and minerals you need. Every day, your body produces skin, muscle, and bone. It churns out rich red blood that carries nutrients and oxygen to remote outposts, and it sends nerve signals skipping along thousands of miles of brain and body pathways. It also formulates chemical messengers that shuttle from one organ to another, issuing the instructions that help sustain your life.

Listing of vitamins

A vitamin is an organic molecule or a set of molecules closely related chemically, i. Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized in the organism, either at all or not in sufficient quantities, and therefore must be obtained through the diet. Vitamin C can be synthesized by some species but not by others; it is not a vitamin in the first instance but is in the second. The term vitamin does not include the three other groups of essential nutrients : minerals , essential fatty acids , and essential amino acids. For example, there are eight vitamers of vitamin E : four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.

Different Types of Vitamins and Their Functions

B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism and synthesis of red blood cells. Individual B vitamin supplements are referred to by the specific number or name of each vitamin, such as B 1 for thiamine, B 2 for riboflavin, and B 3 for niacin, as examples. Each B vitamin is either a cofactor generally a coenzyme for key metabolic processes or is a precursor needed to make one.

Vitamins are a group of substances that are needed for normal cell function, growth, and development. There are 13 essential vitamins. This means that these vitamins are required for the body to work properly.

Different types of vitamins and minerals enable healthy body function, such as cell and functions, their sources, what can happen when you don't get enough.

Contact contact promaxnutrition. Different Types of Vitamins and Their Functions. August 3, Eating the right foods keeps our bodies working properly, thanks to a mix of essential vitamins and nutrients.

The tables below list the vitamins , what they do in the body their functions , and their sources in food.


Nathan C. 17.05.2021 at 03:24

Various studies have investigated the effects of dietary patterns on the nutritional status and have concluded that unhealthy eating increases the.

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If you're like most kids, you've probably heard at least one parent say, "Don't forget to take your vitamin!

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Vitamin , any of several organic substances that are necessary in small quantities for normal health and growth in higher forms of animal life.