File Name: livestock production and marketing in ethiopia .zip
Within the context of a market-oriented agricultural development, this means bringing together the various public and private actors in the agricultural sector including producers, research, extension, education, agri-businesses, and service providers such as input suppliers and credit institutions. The objective is to increase access to relevant knowledge from multiple sources and use it for socio-economic progress.
To enable this, the project is building innovative capacity of public and private partners in the process of planning, implementing and monitoring commodity-based research and development programs. The project staff and partners will study this process through action research and learning. Some complementary focused studies are also undertaken by the project and its partners, which help to understand the context and determine key factors influencing the adoption and impact of the interventions.
The results of all these studies and some important concepts, tools, methods and approaches developed will be published in the working paper series and will also be disseminated through other appropriate channels. Intended users of the research outputs are government, non-governmental and private sector and donor organizations that are involved in market-oriented development. They may use these learnings in their efforts to scale out this development process to other woredas in the country.
Some lessons learned are also expected to be relevant for possible use in market-orientated agricultural development efforts in similar contexts outside Ethiopia. All rights reserved. Table of Contents List of Tables v List of Figures vi Abbreviations vii Acknowledgements viii Executive summary 1 1 Introduction 5 2 Method of the study 6 3 Classification of livestock production systems 7 4 Characteristics of sheep and goat production systems 11 4.
Diseases and parasites 32 6. Major sheep production systems in Ethiopia 8 Table 2. Land use pattern and livestock populations 12 Table 4. Average flock size per household and flock structure 13 Table 5. Sheep breeds by production system and ecology and their productivity in Ethiopia 24 Table Percentage response of farmers in division of labour in sheep and goat management 27 Table Available and required feed supply tonne DM per year 33 Table Live sheep, goat and skin marketing constraints in ranking order of importance 37 Table Ownership of large flocks of sheep and goats in extensive management system of Metema and Mieso 11 Figure 3.
Tethering system of goats in Alaba 11 Figure 4. Brewers grains from traditional local alcoholic drinks locally known as atella fed to sheep and goats 15 Figure 5. Seasonal availability of the major feed resources as expressed by surveyed farmers in Gomma, Metema, Mieso and Fogera PLWs representing wet highland, submoist highland, dry lowland and moist highlands 16 Figure 6. Critical months of water shortages for livestock 17 Figure 7. Supplementary feeding practices for fattening castrates 20 Figure Acacia tree beating for feeding pods to goats in Alaba and goats liking mineral soil in Mieso 20 Figure Hand mating sheep in Atsbi-Womberta 25 Figure Children boys and girls are responsible for herding sheep in Bure 26 Figure A typical livestock market in Tigray and a terminal market in Addis Ababa 28 Figure The contributions of the heads and staff members of the Offices of Agriculture and Rural Development of the respective PLWs are acknowledged.
Special thanks also go to the farmers and pastoralists who participated in these studies through provision of information and allowing some of their animals to be used for the studies. Based on a series of IPMS studies, this paper synthesises and analyses the characteristics, constraints and opportunities of sheep and goat production and marketing in Ethiopia.
The paper also puts forward strategic interventions for improving sheep and goat productivity and producers market success. Livestock production is of subsistence nature. Like all other livestock species, sheep and goat in Ethiopia are kept under traditional extensive systems with no or minimal inputs and improved technologies, which results in characteristically low productivity.
They are virtually kept as scavengers, particularly in the mixed crop—livestock systems. Sheep and goat are largely produced in mixed crop— livestock, specialized pastoral and agropastoral systems.
Market-oriented or commercial production is almost non-existent. Small flock sizes predominate in the highland mixed crop—livestock systems because of land and capital limitations. Relatively larger flocks are maintained in the lowland agro pastoral systems. The major feed resources for sheep and goats include grazing on communal natural pasture, crop stubble, fallow grazing, road side grazing, crop residues, browses, and non-conventional feeds household food leftovers, weeds, crop tillers and fillers.
Production of improved forages, improvement of low quality feed sources such as crop residues and supplementary feeding except fattening is almost non-existent.
A multitude of technical, institutional and socio-economic problems constrain sheep and goat productivity, as reported by producers. Prevalence of diseases and parasites and the resulting high mortality and morbidity rates are the major problems. High mortality is the major factor for the observed low sheep and goat off-take rates in Ethiopia. Marketing constraints include inaccessibility, lack of market information, lack of market orientation, low prices, and unfair share of profit margins.
There is also minimal institutional and regulatory support for farmers to reap their share of the market benefits. Despite all the constraints there are quite favourable opportunities to increase sheep and goat productivity in Ethiopia.
The country owns large and diverse livestock resources which are genetically diverse and this genetic potential is not yet adequately exploited. Some of the breeds have special merits that meet the requirements of certain incentive markets and fetch premium prices. There is also a large domestic market expected to grow with increasing population size, urbanization, and per capita income.
Besides, emerging export market, existing livestock support institutions, improved livestock technologies, diverse and favourable production systems and production environment need to be exploited to increase productivity.
Strategic options to improve productivity and market success need to be assessed and designed. Technical interventions include control and prevention of the major diseases which are the major causes of mortality and morbidity affecting off-take rates.
This entails assessing alternative health service delivery systems. Interventions to improve fertility and reproductive rates which also affect off-take rates need to be assessed. Development of feed resources and improved feeding practices are the key to increasing per capita animal output.
Support for evolving alternative production systems is another strategic option. The current improvement strategy is largely based on the small-scale mode of production. Large-scale specialized production systems are more conducive to introduce improved production technologies that require high inputs, which has been a limiting challenge to increase productivity and off-take rates under smallholder production systems.
Stratification of production systems and delineation of production zones for the different production systems depending on the existing production systems and ecologies is also required to design workable production strategies. Extensive livestock-based production systems are more suited in the extensive lowlands in western, eastern and southern parts of the country and subalpine sheep-based regions. Intensive market-oriented systems with fattening activities are suited in the wet highlands with intensive cropping areas land shortage for extensive breeding activities and feed availability particularly in perennial crop—livestock systems with tethering practices.
Development of improved production systems also requires consideration of technical interventions, particularly development of breeding strategies. Breed choice is a major component of the breeding strategy. Under such breeding strategy, farmers in the intensive system could cross the few available ewes with terminal sires to produce fatteners, or alternatively buy fatteners from the extensive system.
Economically efficient intensive systems could also be designed based on improved exotic or local meat breeds. Institutional, policy and regulatory supports are fundamental and the basis for all other strategic interventions. Institutions that deal with livestock education, research, development and credit may need to be re-oriented for a targeted and appropriate technology generation and dissemination. In the lowlands, sheep with other livestock are the mainstay of the pastoral livelihoods.
The current levels of contributions of the livestock sector in Ethiopia, at either the macro or micro level is below potential. The levels of foreign exchange earnings from livestock and livestock products are also much lower than would be expected, given the size of the livestock population Berhanu et al. In order to alleviate the multi-faceted problems that limit productivity and off-take rates and improve marketing success of farmers and pastoralists, characterization of the production and marketing systems is essential.
The current paper synthesises and analyses these studies in order to provide organized information on the characteristics, constraints and opportunities of sheep and goat production and marketing in Ethiopia. The paper concludes by putting forward some possible strategic intervention areas for improving sheep and goat production and productivity and market success of farmers and pastoralists.
Information and data from eight MSc theses on sheep and goat production and marketing and eight DVM theses on major animal health problems in Ethiopia were utilized. The methods employed in the theses research were diagnostic surveys and flock monitoring studies. The objectives of the studies were to generate baseline information on sheep and goat production and marketing for designing sheep and goat production and improvement strategies.
The approach in the current study was synthesising the data and information generated from these theses studies. The data from the PLWs were organized into defined agro- ecologies and production systems. Thus characteristics of the production and marketing characteristics of the PLWs were described in the context of agro-ecologies and production systems, rather than geographic locations such as woredas districts. Such a presentation is believed to provide organized baseline information for designing country-wide production strategies based on similarities in production environments and production systems.
Livestock production systems are identified on the basis of contribution of the livestock sector to the total household revenue income and food , type and level of crop agriculture practised, types of livestock species kept, and mobility and duration of movement. Mode of livestock production in Ethiopia is broadly classified into pastoral, agropastoral and mixed crop—livestock, peri-urban and urban production systems.
In pastoral systems, extensive livestock production is mostly the sole source of livelihood with little or no cropping. Crop and livestock production are both important activities.
The system is either transhumant or sedentary.
This study PDF in Agricultural Economics examined whether and how livestock production responds to access to markets and varying weather risk and explores whether such responses vary across livelihood zones and livestock production systems. Quite little is known on whether and how livestock production systems respons to variation in weather risk and access to markets. It is also found that households exposed to more unpredictable weather are less likely to engage in livestock production for markets, rather they are more likely to engage in livestock production for precautionary savings and insurance. Furthermore, greater rainfall uncertainty influences livestock portfolio allocation towards those which can be easily liquidated while also discouraging investment in modern livestock inputs. Those households relying only on livestock production seem more sensitive and responsive to weather risk and weather shocks. The heterogeneity in responses and impacts of weather risk among farming systems and livelihoods highlights the need for more tailored livestock sector policies and interventions.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Negassa and S. Rashid and B. Gebremedhin and A. Negassa , S.
sectors; however, this has not happened in Ethiopia. Households keep cattle for different purposes: milk production, draught use, beef production,. and breeding.
This review studies the beef cattle production systems, marketing and constraints with the aim of delivering summarized and the most important information for the producers. The annual contribution of ruminants to meat production in Ethiopia is estimated at over 3. Currently in Ethiopia there are , beef cattle and last year 69, beef cattle were slaughtered for consumption and export purpose. There are different beef cattle production systems in Ethiopia.
Ethiopia is believed to have the largest stock of livestock in the world, although the contribution of the livestock sector to the rapid economic growth recorded in the last decade has been insignificant. Most of the growth has come from increases in the number of livestock and livestock owners. The growth in animal stocks was not the result of increased use of improved feeds and improved breeding techniques, neither of which is yet being applied on a large scale.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Ahmed and B.
A Better Way Farms.
The livestock sector globally is highly dynamic. In developing countries, it is evolving in response to rapidly increasing demand for livestock products. In developed countries, demand for livestock products is stagnating, while many production systems are increasing their efficiency and environmental sustainability.
Бринкерхофф стоял точно завороженный и, не в силах унять дрожь, стукался лбом о стекло. Затем, охваченный паникой, помчался к двери. - Директор. Директор! - кричал .
Однако он умел анализировать свои эмоции и не собирался позволить им отразиться на решении проблемы Цифровой крепости. Он заместитель директора Агентства национальной безопасности, а сегодня все, что он делает, важно, как. Его дыхание стало ровным.
- Танкадо избавился от кольца. Он хотел, чтобы оно оказалось как можно дальше от него - чтобы мы его никогда не нашли. - Но, директор, - возразила Сьюзан, - это не имеет смысла. Если Танкадо не понял, что стал жертвой убийства, зачем ему было отдавать ключ. - Согласен, - сказал Джабба.
- Вы, американцы, совсем не умеете торговаться. На нашем рынке вы бы и дня не продержались. - Наличными, прямо сейчас, - сказал Беккер, доставая из кармана пиджака конверт. Я очень хочу домой.
Слева послышался звон разбитого стекла. Беккер повернулся и увидел человека в красном одеянии. Тот вскрикнул и испуганно посмотрел на Беккера. Как кот, пойманный с канарейкой в зубах, святой отец вытер губы и безуспешно попытался прикрыть разбившуюся бутылку вина для святого причастия.
Он был настолько погружен в свои мысли, что не заметил человека в очках в тонкой металлической оправе, который следил за ним с другой стороны улицы.
PDF | On Jan 15, , ASFAW NEGASSA and others published Livestock Production and Marketing in Ethiopia | Find, read and cite all the.