File Name: programs and manifestoes on 20th century architecture .zip
There has been something of a mania for the manifesto in recent years.
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Anyone who in saw Hundertwasser's Mould Manifesto against rationalism in architecture may perhaps have reacted like the editor of this present work: he was less surprised by the protest as such - even at this time it was impossible to close one's ears to the voices raised against functional architecture- than staggered by the crass subjectivity with which the buildings of two generations were con- demned to wholesale destruction and dismissed as uninhabitable.
There has really been no lack of critical and revolutionary actions and statements during this century. But never before had building been so recklessly banded over to the anarchical caprice of the individual; never before had the demand been so loudly voiced that buildings should be left to the mercy of the 'creative' forces of the natural processes of dilapidation. It is true that the utterances of the Lettrists and the later Situationists, which from on are to be found in the most varied - chiefly literary - periodicals, also cast fundamental doubt on rational building and functional planning; but they are far from offering as a solution to urgent problems uncommitted action or uncommitted laisser- faire.
On the contrary, they demand consistent regard for locality and specific situation. The 'new games' for which they call do not by any means imply that construction and town planning should be carried out without reference to the surroundings, but would rather necessitate a renewed use of the creative imagination based on precise observation of the complex interconnected structures of the city.
The reader will have no difficulty in discovering other similarly provocative connexions or contradictions in the manifestoes, pro- grammes, and programmatic essays gathered together in this volume, any one of which might have provided the incentive for this collection.
The choice- and selection has been at work here- is consciously limited to texts dating from this century. Two further determining factors governed the selection: only those texts were chosen which on the one hand represent the starting point, or a definite stage, of a particular development in architecture, and on the other exercised a determining influence on architecture within the area of Central Europe.
All the texts are arranged according to the year of their first publication. Within each year, however, this chronological order has been abandoned in favour of certain comparative confrontations. In the case of essays it was not always possible to avoid abbreviation; in each case there is a note to this effect. For permission to reprint the editor owes his explicit thanks to the authors and the publishers listed in the index of sources.
His first publications pointing the way for the future appeared in the mid-nineties in Brussels; from on his name was indissolubly li nked with the concept 'I' Art Nouveau' from an exhibition with this t itle at the gallery of S.
Bing in Paris. The publication of these lectures Leipzig preceded the 'programme'. To recognize the meaning, the form, the purpose of all the things of the material modern world with the same truth as the Greeks, among many others, recognized the meaning, form, and purpose of the column.
It is not easy nowadays to find the exact meaning and the exact form for the simplest things. It will take us a long time to recognize the exact form of a table, a chair, a house. Religious, arbitrary, sentimental flights of fancy are parasitic plants. As soon as the work of cleansing and sweeping out has been finished, as soon as the true form of things comes to light again, then strive with all the patience, all the spirit and the logic of the Greeks for the perfection of this form.
It seems to me that artistic sensibility is just as highly developed among ourselves as among the Greeks; what is less highly developed and weaker among ourselves, however, is the sense of perfection. Under what social regime shall we enjoy the serenely transfigured calm that we need for work and for serious endeavour? Answer: Are we to expect from a social programme what can only springfrom our own most inward selves?
Think rationally, cultivate artistic sensibility! Each one of us today can do this for himself; if only a large number of people do this a new social atmo- sphere will be brought about. We know his reflective, but at the same time incorruptible and exacting, judgment from his famous speech to the Bund Deutscher Architekten Association of German Architects on 4 June Poelzig, then head of the Academy of Arts in Breslau, makes it plain that there is more than just one step from applied art to architecture.
Essentially, the buildings at the Dresden Exhibition of Applied Art of mirror the process of fermentation which our architecture is today passing through, whose end cannot yet be foreseen and whose products are as yet scarcely to be recognized.
The main tasks of modern architecture do not lie in the ecclesiastical sphere, nor do monumental constructions of a secular character exercise a decisive influence. Life in the modern era is dominated by economic questions; thus the participation of the people and of artists in architectural problems of this kind - from the private dwelling to town planning- is constantly growing.
This is the starting point for most of the movements towards formalistic constructions, in so far as we can speak of a movement at a time marked by the multiplicity of vacillating trends- trends which for nearly a hundred years have been changing in quick succession the fundamental principles upon which they were based. Attempts, mostly based on the art of Schinkel, to transpose elements of the Greek language of forms onto our buildings, were followed by an unselective use of forms taken from the most varied styles of the past- from Gothic via the Renaissance in both its Italian and its German manifestation to Baroque and Empire -generally with no regard for the inner spiiit of the forms, with no regard for the material from which these forms originally sprang.
And isolated attempts by outstanding teachers of architecture in South and North Germany to attain by detailed study a knowledge of the artistic lan- guage of the ancients and its true meaning were soon crossed with energetic attempts to invent a new world language of architecture, whose rules and roots would not parallel or resemble any of the styles of the past.
After initial vacillation there was a 14 wholesome return- influenced by a study of the art of early times and especially of that of an Asian people- to techniques adapted to the material in question and an artistic elaboration of the motif based on a detailed study of nature.
Above all, wallpapers, textiles, glass windows, surface decoration, and minor arts of all kinds at the German Exhibition of Applied Art show this clearly enough, and architecture too demonstrates the decorative skill of its creators. But both the successful and the unsuccessful solutions clearly reveal that a true architecture is not to be achieved with the armoury of decoration, that the problems of modern architecture cannot be mastered by purely external means.
Flight from everything historical can no more bring salvation than a purely decorative return to forms from the past. The principle of interpreting things in purely surface terms has for several decades led to shapes in various materials being reproduced according to a play of lines forced into a particular system -with no regard for scale.
Apart from the great curtailment of inventiveness, this schematism may be harmless for small-scale works, but when applied to large-scale, tectonic projects it leads to monstrosities. It is partly as a result of recognizing this fact that we see so many instances of renunciation of any tectonic solution at all: supports remain shapeless and receive merely surface decoration, dividing cornices are omitted altogether.
This produces a tranquillity in the appearance of buildings that was often missing in the past, but it is a tranquillity applied by force, not the outcome of a real balance of energies accompanying full emphasis of the tectonic transi- tions. It is a frequent error of periods offermentation to impose suddenly and forcibly developments that normally take several epochs to evolve, and to attempt to give a work an exceptional quality by applying external peculiari- ties that have not come into being organically and spontaneously.
The artist's attention is distracted from what must be his main task: an unfailing mastery of his motif directly corresponding to his temperament and ability. We also forget that the utilization of structures from earlier times for a building designed to meet the demands of modern life must be accompanied by an unmistakably modern adaptation of these structures, and that the cor- rect use of materials and construction consciously adapted to purpose produce inner advantages that cannot be replaced by decorative embellishments, how- ever skilfully applied.
We cannot do without the past in solving the architectural problems of our own day. We may dispense with the externals, but not with the work done in the past on the mastery of tectonic problems. In spite of all the constructional achievements and changes, most of the best building materials are still the same and many of the constructions of the past remain unsurpassed. We are absolutely compelled to stay firmly planted on the shoulders of our forefathers and we deprive ourselves of a solid foot- hold if we begin needlessly to experiment afresh on our own account.
A sure eye and the right freedom in performing the tasks presented by the use of new building materials are to be acquired from a close study of what is IS possible and good for other materials and motifs. This freedom has to be gained by an intellectual analysis and mastery of tradition and has nothing to do with that lack of restraint which inevitably leads to helpless confusion.
The sad role frequently given to iron - that mighty aid to light structures and great spans- is that of a coupling which, because of its malleability and its ability to operate in concealment, is compelled to link together two ele- ments in a building that are inorganically juxtaposed. Every architectural work first has to tally with the work done by the engineer - and the modern architect more than any has no right to think illogically.
But most of us are and remain sentimentalists and behave just as romantically as those who revived the formal elements of Gothic - not its tectonic core- around the middle of the nineteenth century.
We all too fre- quently seek to save the emotional content of past epochs, without first thinking what use it is to us. The past has bequeathed to us a deep understanding of materials and their characteristics, the evolution of science has afforded us a much more precise knowledge of the laws of statics, and yet for the most part we are more restricted and illogical in our thinking than was ever the case in an age that confronted architectonic problems armed only with sound common sense.
It is left to the engineer to calculate and design a unity between load and support, the right measurements for the parts of the structure consisting of various materials.
The architect all too often seeks his salvation in purely decorative constructions that have to be imposed on the fabric of the building and spoil its organic clarity. Every real tectonic constructional form has absolute nucleus, to which the decorative embellishment, which within certain limits is changeable, lends a varying charm.
First, however, the absolute element bas to be found, even if as yet in an imperfect, rough form. And the artist who approaches the design of structural elements solely from the viewpoint of external, decorative considerations distracts attention from the discovery of the pure nuclear form.
Domestic architecture is the first to begin freeing itself from an exterior con- ception, to make demands that operate from the inside outward, that help this architecture to achieve authenticity and have to be taken into account.
And yet here too the striving to say more than necessary often robs the building of that calm and naturalness which can be achieved by simplifying the overall design. Even here we are too much bogged down in an exterior, painterly conception and pay too little attention to the reconciliation between initially contradictory architectural demands unity of material and form, limitation in the choice of materials which creates tranquillity. Only when this overall tranquillity has been achieved does it become possible to apply decorative richness without overburdening the structure.
Instead, we often damage buildings of smaller dimension by attempting to increase their importance by stressing individual elements in a manner con- trary to the organic harmony of the whole; we cannot go far enough in utilizing the most varied building materials in a single structure. And painterly 16 play with emblems and applied decoration of all kinds, in so far as they serve no structural purpose, is merely confusing and easily leads to a mantle of sentimentality being thrown round a perfectly good basic structure, charming the undiscerning imitator and distracting his attention from the true core of the whole building.
The new movement carries the banner of objectivity against traditional struc- tures that have become empty of content and petrified into a scheme. Objectivity is possible in architecture only on the basis of sound construction and a formal idiom evolved out of it.
Creative buildings of a new kind can come into being only in this way. The fabric of our architectural idiom is still confused and we lack a know- ledge of what is essential. We are still chasing after fashionable manners that after a short time, having been vulgarized by a seriei of imitators, become the object of contempt, whereas real architecture as the product of intense thought governed by artistic considerations offers little opportunity for un- justified robbery by imitators.
The right kind of architecture is already beginning to appear, especially in the case of buildings presenting few complications; here the path of un- affected artistic expression is already being trod.
It is time to stop trying to make a style of this, to stop burdening the artist with the demand to evolve an intrusive personal note, which drives him to superficialities. For the time being we must demand only unrelenting objectivity and a solution, in keeping with good taste, of a clearly thought out problem.
These pr inciples, says Henry van de Vel de, need only t o be enunciated to be accepted as valid. Thei r fruitfulness has already been proved. In fact t here arise from them the two basic demands not merely of t he t heory and critique of the new architect ure, but also of its practice: honesty of materials, honesty of const ruction. Both have been t ill now uncontested.
Thou shalt comprehend the form and construction of all objects only in the sense of their strictest, elementary logic and justification for their existence. Thou shalt adapt and subordinate these forms and constructions to t he essential use of the material which thou employest. And if thou art animated by the wish to beautify these forms and constructions, give thyself to the longing for refinement to which thy aesthetic sensibility or taste for ornament- of whatever kind it is- shall inspire thee, only so far as thou canst respect and retain the rights and the essential appearance of these forms and constructions!
From this Loos developed his radical aesthetic purism, which made him a zealous foe of Art Nouveau and the German Werkbund: 'The German Werkbund has set out to discover t he style of our age. This is unnecessary labour.
We already have the style of our age. When man is born, his sensory impressions are like those of a newborn puppy. His childhood takes him through all the metamorphoses of human history. At 2 he sees with the eyes of a Papuan, at 4 with those of an ancient Teuton, at 6 with those of Socrates, at 8 with those of Voltaire. When he is 8 he becomes aware of violet, the colour discovered by the eighteenth century, because before that the violet was blue and the purple-snail red.
The physicist points today to colours in the solar spectrum which already have a name but the knowledge of which is reserved for the men of the future. The child is amoral. To our eyes, the Papuan is too.
The Papuan kills his enemies and eats them. He is not a criminal. But when modern man kills someone and eats him he is either a criminal or a degenerate. The Papuan tattoos his skin, his boat, his paddles, in short everything he can lay hands on. The modern man who tattoos himself is either a criminal or a degenerate.
There are prisons in which eighty per cent of the inmates show tattoos. The tattooed who are not in prison are latent criminals or degenerate aristocrats.
That he asked Bella Sinclair to marry him and she turned him down, so he took a great temper on him and left the islands. I knew what was growing in his mind. A moment later, an artillery shell exploded above them, followed immediately by the thundering detonation of the gas bag. Billowing waves of fire spread across the sky over head, filling the gondola with a hellish light. The propellers on either side of her were growling and snarling, but another sound was beginning to overwhelm them: the whistling wind-scream of the falling airship. Taziri ripped the engine panels away and hauled herself up against the metal box where her massive batteries huddled in three rows, daisy-chained together just below the decoy steam engine. Lola still waited patiently under the tree branch, although a ticket stuck over my saddle horn warned me against leaving my horse on the street in the future.
Building American Public Health pp Cite as. It begins with a discussion of some of the contradictions of Modernism, the gap between its lofty goals and sometimes less successful reality. Then the story is told of its beginnings in Europe and ideas developed by Le Corbusier, the Bauhaus School, and others. Then the triumph of Modernism, first in Europe and elsewhere and eventually the United States, is outlined. The chapter then turns to the problems of Modernism and the reaction against it.
Anyone who in saw Hundertwasser's Mould Manifesto against rationalism in architecture may perhaps have reacted like the editor of this present work: he was less surprised by the protest as such - even at this time it was impossible to close one's ears to the voices raised against functional architecture- than staggered by the crass subjectivity with which the buildings of two generations were con- demned to wholesale destruction and dismissed as uninhabitable. There has really been no lack of critical and revolutionary actions and statements during this century. But never before had building been so recklessly banded over to the anarchical caprice of the individual; never before had the demand been so loudly voiced that buildings should be left to the mercy of the 'creative' forces of the natural processes of dilapidation. It is true that the utterances of the Lettrists and the later Situationists, which from on are to be found in the most varied - chiefly literary - periodicals, also cast fundamental doubt on rational building and functional planning; but they are far from offering as a solution to urgent problems uncommitted action or uncommitted laisser- faire. On the contrary, they demand consistent regard for locality and specific situation.
The present volume offers eloquent testimony that many of the master builders of this century have held passionate convictions regarding the philosophic and social basis of their art. Nearly every important development in the modern architectural movement began with the proclamation of these convictions in the form of a program or manifesto. The most influential of these are collected here in chronological order from to Taken together, they constitute a subjective history of modern architecture; compared with one another, their great diversity of style reveals in many cases the basic differences of attitude and temperament that produced a corresponding divergence in architectural style. In point of view, the book covers the aesthetic spectrum from right to left; from programs that rigidly generate designs down to the smallest detail to revolutionary manifestoes that call for anarchy in building form and town plan.
Modern Architecture Since aantal. Since its first publication in , Modern Architecture Since has become established as a contemporary classic.
На каждом из них красовалась печать АНБ. - Хочешь посмотреть, чем занимаются люди в шифровалке? - спросил он, заметно нервничая. - Вовсе нет, - ответила Мидж. - Хотела бы, но шифровалка недоступна взору Большого Брата. Ни звука, ни картинки. Приказ Стратмора. Все, что я могу, - это проверить статистику, посмотреть, чем загружен ТРАНСТЕКСТ.
- Может быть, у них закоротило генератор. Как только освобожусь, загляну в шифровалку и… - А что с аварийным питанием. Если закоротило генератор, почему оно не включилось. - Не знаю. Может быть, Стратмор прогоняет что-то в ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ и на это ушло все аварийное питание.
У меня есть кое-что для. Она зажмурилась. - Попробую угадать. Безвкусное золотое кольцо с надписью по-латыни. - Нет.
Джабба тяжко вздохнул и повернулся к экрану. - Не знаю. Все зависит от того, что ударило в голову автору. - Он привлек внимание к тексту на экране.
А также здравый смысл! - отрезала. - Кто знает… - Хейл театрально вздохнул.
Бринкерхофф отложил бумагу и подошел к двери. В приемной было темно, свет проникал только сквозь приоткрытую дверь кабинета Мидж. Голоса не стихали. Он прислушался. Голоса звучали возбужденно.
Двухцветный посмотрел на часы Беккера. Его лицо казалось растерянным. - Обычно я напиваюсь только к четырем! - Он опять засмеялся. - Как быстрее добраться до аэропорта. - У входа возьмешь такси.
- Он замолчал, не зная, что сказать. Беккер терпеть не мог говорить с автоответчиком: только задумаешься, а тот уже отключился. - Прости, не мог позвонить раньше, - успел сказать. Подумал, не рассказать ли ей .
Алгоритм есть уже у. Танкадо предлагает ключ, с помощью которого его можно расшифровать. - Понятно.