File Name: mir398 and plant stress responses .zip
Sulfur dioxide SO 2 is a common air pollutant that has adverse effects on plants. The activity of superoxide dismutase SOD , one of the major antioxidant enzymes, was enhanced with the increase in the CSD transcript level, suggesting an important role of miR in response to SO 2 -induced oxidative stress. Meanwhile, the expression of miR was increased, and the transcript levels of its target genes, ATP sulfurylases APS3 and APS4 and a low-affinity sulfate transporter SULTR2;1 , were decreased in Arabidopsis shoots, showing that miR played important roles in the regulation of sulfate assimilation and translocation during SO 2 exposure. The content of glutathione GSH , an important sulfur-containing antioxidant, was enhanced with the changes in sulfur metabolism in Arabidopsis shoots under SO 2 stress. These results showed that both miR and miR were involved in protecting plants from oxidative damage during SO 2 exposure.
Biotic and abiotic stresses affect plant development and production through alternation of the gene expression pattern. Gene expression itself is under the control of different regulators such as miRNAs and transcription factors TFs. Here, for the first time, seven conserved miRNAs, associated with drought, heat, salt and cadmium stresses were characterized in sunflower. The expression profiles of miRNAs and their targets were comparatively analyzed between leaves and roots of plants grown under the mentioned stress conditions. Gene ontology analysis of target genes revealed that they are involved in several important pathways such as auxin and ethylene signaling, RNA mediated silencing and DNA methylation processes. Gene regulatory network highlighted the existence of cross-talks between these stress-responsive miRNAs and the other stress responsive genes in sunflower. Based on network analysis, we suggest that some of these miRNAs in sunflower such as miR and miR may play critical roles in epigenetic responses to stress.
Heat stress is an important factor limiting plant growth, development, and productivity; thus, plants have evolved special adaptive mechanisms to cope with high-temperature stress. Recently developed advanced technologies, such as genome-wide transcriptomic analysis, have revealed that abundant ncRNAs are expressed under heat stress. Although this area of research is still in its infancy, an increasing number of several classes of regulatory ncRNA i. Finally, we briefly discuss future prospects concerning the ncRNA-related mechanisms of heat stress responses in plants. Abiotic stresses, such as heat, drought, salinity, and low temperature, seriously impact the growth and productivity of plants. Consequently, as sessile organisms, plants have evolved various sophisticated mechanisms to cope with multiple abiotic stresses.
Received: January 01, Published: ,. Citation: DOI:. Download PDF. Soil salinity is a challenge for agriculture worldwide as crop plants are more sensitive to it compared to non-crops. Development of salinity tolerant crop plants through breeding approaches has been quite a task to the breeder so far because of quantitative nature of the trait.
They are involved in many important processes of plant development and stress responses. Some small RNAs are required for plant thermotolerance and salt tolerance. These findings facilitate our investigation of the genetic basis of plant adaptability to various environmental stresses and the genetic manipulation of plant tolerance to many abiotic stresses. This chapter highlights the recent advances in understanding the crucial roles of sRNAs in plant responses to heat, drought, salinity, and cold and proposes the potential technologies and strategies used to identify abiotic-stress-regulated sRNAs in addition to the recent advances and methods for validation and analysis of their target genes. Environmental stresses, such as heat, drought, salinity, nutrient deficiency, and low temperature, are the major natural limiting factors for plant growth and crop productivity and thus are the major causes of crop losses worldwide. In recent years, much progress has been made in unraveling the complex and sophisticated molecular mechanisms by which plants have evolved during periods of environmental stresses, and a great deal of attention has been paid to identifying these stress-responsive proteins and their relevant gene networks.
Metrics details. Sequencing of 24 small RNA libraries produced From these, miRNAs were ascertained, of which mature miRNA evidence was obtained for and 36 were found to be differentially expressed after heat stress. PARE sequencing validated the targets of the conserved members of miRNA, miR and miR families as squamosa promoter-binding-like, homeobox leucine-zipper and transport inhibitor responsive proteins, respectively.
Metrics details. Although diverse assays have been performed, systematic and detailed studies of miRNA expression and function during exposure to multiple environments in crops are limited. Here, we present such pioneering analysis in melon plants in response to seven biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Deep-sequencing and computational approaches have identified twenty-four known miRNAs whose expression was significantly altered under at least one stress condition, observing that down-regulation was preponderant. Additionally, miRNA function was characterized by high scale degradome assays and quantitative RNA measurements over the intended target mRNAs, providing mechanistic insight. Clustering analysis provided evidence that eight miRNAs showed a broad response range under the stress conditions analyzed, whereas another eight miRNAs displayed a narrow response range. Transcription factors were predominantly targeted by stress-responsive miRNAs in melon.
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Drought is a major environmental stress factor that limits agricultural production worldwide. Plants employ complex mechanisms of gene regulation in response to drought stress. Many miRNAs have been shown to be involved in drought stress responses, including ABA response, auxin signalling, osmoprotection, and antioxidant defence, by downregulating the respective target genes encoding regulatory and functional proteins. This review summarizes recent molecular studies on the miRNAs involved in the regulation of drought-responsive genes, with emphasis on miRNA-associated regulatory networks involved in drought stress response.
Various studies have identified numerous miRNAs that were either up regulated or down regulated upon stress treatment.
Recent findings have established that plants assign miRNAs as critical post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in sequence-specific manner to respond to numerous abiotic stresses they face during their growth cycle. These small RNAs regulate gene expression via translational inhibition. Usually, stress induced miRNAs downregulate their target mRNAs, whereas, their downregulation leads to accumulation and function of positive regulators. In the past decade, investigations were mainly aimed to identify plant miRNAs, responsive to individual or multiple environmental factors, profiling their expression patterns and recognizing their roles in stress responses and tolerance. Altered expressions of miRNAs implicated in plant growth and development have been reported in several plant species subjected to abiotic stress conditions such as drought, salinity, extreme temperatures, nutrient deprivation, and heavy metals.
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