File Name: china threat in jammu and kashmir and arunachal pradesh .zip
The Supreme Court Tuesday sought government's reply on a plea, seeking transfer of cases from several high courts to it against the Centre's notification to declare five communities Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists and Parsees as minorities even in those states and UTs where they are in majority.
Chinese Victory .
To compete and thrive in the 21st century, democracies, and the United States in particular, must develop new national security and economic strategies that address the geopolitics of information. In this century, democracies must better account for information geopolitics across all dimensions of domestic policy and national strategy.
This process has to be examined in the context of the current strategic competition between China and the U. Fueled by aggressive rhetoric from both capitals, Indian and Chinese ground forces engaged in a standoff between June and August The Doklam crisis, as it became known, stimulated introspection among officials and experts in both states about the future of their relationship.
Based on our analysis of data on the location and capabilities of Indian and Chinese strategic forces and related military units, we conclude that this assessment of the balance of forces may be mistaken and a poor guide for Indian security and procurement policies.
We recommend that instead of investing in new nuclear weapons platforms that our analysis suggests are not likely to be required to deter China, New Delhi should improve the survivability of its existing forces and fill the gap in global arms control leadership with an initiative on restraint and transparency. To overcome that problem, this brief introduces a new data compilation, consisting of a variety of published intelligence documents, private documents sourced from regional states, and interviews with experts based in China, India, and the United States.
This data is combined with open-source force estimates to provide the most comprehensive public assessment of the location and capabilities of Chinese and Indian strategic forces. The appendix provides a link to an interactive map of Chinese and Indian nuclear and conventional air and ground forces, including descriptions of some simplifications and estimates necessary to display the forces on a map.
Our analysis focuses on strategic military strike concentrations as they are postured against one other, excluding border patrol forces, as of January What does this data tell us?
We assess that India has key under-appreciated conventional advantages that reduce its vulnerability to Chinese threats and attacks. India appears to have cause for greater confidence in its military position against China than is typically acknowledged in Indian debates, providing the country an opportunity for leadership in international efforts toward nuclear transparency and restraint. Indian strategists have not focused on this opportunity, in part because they draw pessimistic conclusions regarding China.
China has better military infrastructure, capabilities, and logistics. The next sections assess the nuclear forces India and China have arrayed against each other, followed by conventional forces relevant to a potential conflict. Chinese nuclear forces comprise land- and sea-based ballistic missiles and aircraft that may emerge as nuclear bombers. Sea-based missiles do not have a fixed location. In all, an estimated Chinese missiles could strike all or parts of India.
Another dozen DFs hold New Delhi at risk. Rocket Force Base and Location 8. Missile Range miles. Base Delingha, Qinghai Province. Base Liuqingkou, Qinghai Province. Indian nuclear weapons stand ready for delivery by bombers and land-based missiles. India seeks to ensure the survivability of its forces through adequate force dispersal, distributing its forces across several bases and along several vectors air, land, and sea , while seeking to ensure the secrecy of their locations.
Another eight Agni-II launchers could reach central Chinese targets. An estimated two squadrons of Jaguar IS and one squadron of Mirage H fighters, totaling around 51 aircraft, are assessed to be tasked with nuclear missions. However, it is near certain that they would be identified and tracked by air defenses before proceeding deeper into China from Tibet.
The potential early surprise achievable in Tibet-centric missions would no longer be possible for missions elsewhere in China, as Chinese air defenses would be alerted in the additional time necessary for Indian aircraft to transit Tibet. Map Legend Nuclear Delivery Vehicle Type. Range miles. Mirage H fighters , with nuclear gravity bombs. Jaguar IS fighters , with nuclear gravity bombs. We now turn to the effect of conventional forces on this overall strategic balance.
This incorporates the roughly 3, personnel attached to a T tank brigade stationed in Ladakh and the estimated 1, personnel attached to a Brahmos cruise missile regiment in Arunachal Pradesh. Even in a war with India, a significant proportion of these forces will be unavailable, reserved either for Russian taskings or for countering insurrection in Xinjiang and Tibet.
The majority of forces are located further from the Indian border, posing a striking contrast with the majority of forward-deployed Indian forces with a single China defense mission. The new joint Western Theater Command is estimated to hold around 90,, troops, principally divided into the 76th and 77th Group Armies. More numerous forces are located in the Xinjiang region north of Tibet, totaling around 70, By contrast, Indian forces are already largely in position.
Unlike the tripartite organizational division of Chinese ground forces facing India, the Western Theater Command has assumed control of all regional strike aircraft. By comparison, as noted earlier, the Indian Eastern Air Command can field around fighters against China alone.
China also uses eight airbases and airfields relevant to India strike missions, although a majority are civilian airports that can be commandeered in wartime. The high altitude of Chinese air bases in Tibet and Xinjiang, plus the generally difficult geographic and weather conditions of the region, means that Chinese fighters are limited to carrying around half their design payload and fuel.
Ngari-Gunsa and Xigaze reportedly have no hardened shelters or blast pens for their aircraft, which sit in the open. Moreover, China lacks the redundancy and related force survivability compared to India in their comparative numbers of regional air bases.
By contrast, recent conflicts with Pakistan give the current IAF a level of institutional experience in actual networked combat. Recognizing this dilemma, instead of a regional aircraft offensive, Chinese strategic planners envision early long-range missile strikes against Indian air bases in the event of conflict.
However, India benefits from the greater number and redundancy of regional air bases, and the daunting number of Chinese missiles that would be required to truly incapacitate relevant IAF forces. A former IAF official, referring to the high number of disparate targets per air base, the requirement for at least two missiles per target, and the ability of base officials to repave the blast crater with quick-drying concrete within six hours, has articulated the operational problem:.
To address its force shortfalls in the event of war, China could surge air and ground forces from its interior toward the border. Ammunition shortfalls have been a limiting factor for Indian conventional force operations in the past, especially for the Indian Army.
An Indian counter-buildup would surely follow. Note: Due to the available data, some of these force locations are rough estimates, placed at the level of the town or city in which they are reportedly based, rather than exact coordinates.
This is most common for Chinese and some Indian ground force locations, and Indian nuclear missile locations. In addition, some Chinese ground locations have been slightly spaced apart to prevent their signposts being stacked entirely on top of each other. This map focuses on principal strike forces.
As such, local border patrol and armed police forces, and air force bases and squadrons containing only helicopters, have been excluded with the exception of Tawang Advanced Landing Ground, which could be expanded in the future. Unit , 52 nd Mountain Infantry Brigade. Unit , 53 rd Mountain Infantry Brigade. Medog County 3 rd Independent Battalion. Milin 4 th Independent Battalion. Artillery Brigade, 76 th Group Army.
Air Defense Brigade, 76 th Group Army. Artillery Brigade, 77 th Group Army. Air Defense Brigade, 77 th Group Army. Used for forward detachments of J and J fighters. Note: Bases labelled in black—e. These bases and squadrons are controlled by their parent Air Force Command and hold conventional assignments in peacetime.
A nuclear strike order will entail certified aircraft being armed with nuclear weapons and flown by Air Force pilots. MiG Bison. Jaguar IS, 3 Sq. Note: Not all Chinese nuclear bases have been allocated a circle indicating strike range, due to several bases having highly similar locations and ranges and a desire to maximize map clarity. In base clusters where this occurs, one base has been allocated the indicative range circle. Chinese nuclear forces are operated by the Rocket Force Command, which executes nuclear strike orders made by the Central Military Commission.
Chuxiong Brigade, 53 rd Base. With Strike Range Filter. No Filter. Kunming Brigade, 53 rd Base. Tianshui Brigade, 53 rd Base. Xining Brigade, 56 th Base. Unable to determine exact missile locations, so location of 56th Base HQ utilized. Datong Brigade, 56 th Base. Liuqingkou Brigade, 56 th Base. Delingha Brigade, 56 th Base. DFC 2,km range conventional missiles. Da Qaidam Brigade, 56 th Base. Unknown nuclear missile deployments. Mahai Brigade, 56 th Base.
Korla Brigade, 56 th Base. Total Nuclear and Nuclear-Capable Forces. Notes: India may possess more missiles than launchers for each missile type.
India has also reportedly deployed a small number of 3, km range Agni-III missiles, but their locations and progress toward the targeted force strength are currently unknown. As the authors have information indicating the potential presence of a 2, km range Agni-II missile brigade near Nagaon in Assam in northeast India, the Agni-III missiles are estimated by the authors to be based in the same general area.
As illustrated on the map, this location is optimal for Agni-III missiles to reach all significant mainland targets in China and Pakistan. Missile base locations represent general estimations, as opposed to exact locations.
The deputy commissioner of Falam district, Myanmar has written to the Deputy Commissioner of Champai district in Mizoram to detain Myanmar police personnel and hand them over to Myanmar. People in villages adjoining the border area said that around people have come to Mizoram since February this year. There is an apprehension that clandestine in-flow of liquor into the state from neighbouring states like Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya may play a role in influencing the electorate before and during assembly election. The Supreme Court Tuesday sought government's reply on a plea, seeking transfer of cases from several high courts to it against the Centre's notification to declare five communities Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists and Parsees as minorities even in those states and UTs where they are in majority. The proposed dam threatens the complete inundation of low-lying areas in Arunachal Pradesh. While assuring to look into the grievances of the project affected people of the two Hydro-Electric Projects, he said that there is shortage of power in the State despite having so much of potential. Under the scheme barracks will also be built adjacent to the BOPs for the convenience of the men in uniform.
Pakistan, which lays claim to the entire Muslim-majority province, has already downgraded its diplomatic relations with India. China, which claims rights to the north-eastern portion of Kashmir, has also issued a warning. According to a Hindu Right dictum, only a display of might will get India its due in the world. EU decision-makers can expect to deal with a more uncompromising and hard-line India in their future engagements with the country. This decision, which alters the status of a contested region in South Asia — and the unilateral manner of its execution — bespeaks the ascendance of an assertive Hindu nationalism in India.
The spate of recent high-profile self-immolation suicides by Tibetan monks has led Beijing to clamp down heavily on dissent and opposition. Control and management over the contentious border areas of Tibet that abuts India is absolutely pivotal to the Chinese project of imposing its authority over Tibet. Since Tibet is considered to be a part of the greater Chinese territorial realm and a core strategic interest, Beijing is in the process of asserting its perception of how the 4,km border with India should be defined.
To compete and thrive in the 21st century, democracies, and the United States in particular, must develop new national security and economic strategies that address the geopolitics of information. In this century, democracies must better account for information geopolitics across all dimensions of domestic policy and national strategy. This process has to be examined in the context of the current strategic competition between China and the U.
The Chinese have created new facts on the ground and pushed the Indian political leadership to react in ways that will further disadvantage the Indian military. File photo of unseasonal snowfall blocking the only road to Pangong Tso. All traffic had to wait for the snow to be cleared, including military vehicles.
Si, si, senor. Мануэль - это. Чего желаете. - Сеньор Ролдан из агентства сопровождения Белена сказал мне, что вы… Взмахом руки консьерж заставил Беккера остановиться и нервно оглядел фойе. - Почему бы нам не пройти сюда? - Он подвел Беккера к конторке. - А теперь, - продолжал он, перейдя на шепот, - чем я могу вам помочь. Беккер тоже понизил голос: - Мне нужно поговорить с одной из сопровождающих, которая, по-видимому, приглашена сегодня к вам на обед.
- С Танкадо. Ты знала об. Сьюзан посмотрела на него, стараясь не показать свое изумление. - Неужели. - Да.
Беккеру не хотелось так быстро уходить от алтаря, но когда две тысячи людей ждут причастия, а обслуживают их всего восемь священнослужителей, было бы неприличным медлить с этим священным глотком. Чаша была уже совсем близко, когда Халохот заметил человека в пиджаке и брюках разного цвета. - Estas ya muerto, - тихо прошептал он, двигаясь по центральному проходу. Ты уже мертвец. Времени на какие-либо уловки уже не. Два выстрела в спину, схватить кольцо и исчезнуть. Самая большая стоянка такси в Севилье находилась всего в одном квартале от Матеус-Гаго.
Беккер поднял. Дверцы автобуса открылись, но из него никто не вышел. Дизельный двигатель взревел, набирая обороты, и в тот момент, когда автобус уже готов был тронуться, из соседнего бара выскочили трое молодых людей. Они бежали за уже движущимся автобусом, крича и размахивая руками.
Джабба. Скорее вылезай. Он неохотно выполз из-под компьютера.
- Хейл улыбнулся. - Что скажешь. А потом мы могли бы… - Выкинь это из головы. - Сколько в тебе снобизма. - Хейл вздохнул и повернулся к своему компьютеру.
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