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# State State Graphs And Transition Testing Pdf

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Software Testing Techniques. By Sudhakar yadav. The finite-state machine is a functional testing tool and testable design programming tool. State testing strategies are based on the use of finite-state machine models for software structure, software behavior, or specifications of software behavior.

Finite-state machines can also be implemented as table-driven software, in which case they are a powerful design option. Independent testers are likeliest to use a finite-state machine model as a guide to the design of functional tests—especially system tests. Implementation and Operation 2. Input Encoding and Input Alphabet 3. Output Encoding and Output Alphabet 4. State Codes and State-Symbol Products 5. Application Comments for Designers 6. Application Comments for Testers.

Neither ZCZC nor any part of it has been detected. Z has been detected. ZC has been detected. ZCZ has been detected. ZCZC has been detected Figure Reverse gear 2. Neutral gear 3. First gear 4. Second gear 5. Third gear 6. A word processing program menu can be in the what states with respect to file manipulation? Transitions are denoted by links that join the states A finite-state machine is an abstract device that can be represented by a state graph having a finite number of states and a finite number of transitions between states.

The ZCZC detection example can have the following kinds of inputs: 1. As in the previous example, the inputs and actions have been simplified.

Each row of the table corresponds to a state. Each column corresponds to an input condition. The box at the intersection of a row and column specifies the next state the transition and the output, if any. Software Implementation1.

Implementation and Operation There are four tables involved: 1. A table that stores the present state of every device or process that uses the same state table—e.

Implementation and Operation 1. The present state is fetched from memory. The present input value is fetched. If it is already numerical, it can be used directly; otherwise, it may have to be encoded into a numerical value, say by use of a case statement, a table, or some other process. The present state and the input code are combined e. The output table, either directly or via a case statement, contains a pointer to the routine to be executed the output for that state-input combination.

The routine is invoked possibly a trivial routine if no output is required. The same pointer is used to fetch the new state value, which is then stored. Software Implementation2. Input Encoding and Input Alphabet The alternative to input encoding is a huge state graph and table because there must be one outlink in every state for every possible different input.

Input encoding compresses the cases and therefore the state graph. Another advantage of input encoding is that we can run the machine from a mixture of otherwise incompatible input events, such as characters, device response codes, thermostat settings, or gearshift lever positions. The set of different encoded input values is called the input alphabet.

Software Implementation3. Output Encoding and Output Alphabet There are only a finite number of such distinct actions, which we can encode into a convenient output alphabet.

Software Implementation4. State Codes and State-Symbol Products The term state-symbol product is used to mean the value obtained by any scheme used to convert the combined state and input code into a pointer to a compact table without holes. Software Implementation5. Application Comments for Designers State-table implementation is advantageous when either the control function is likely to change in the future or when the system has many similar, but slightly different, control functions.

This technique can provide fast response time—one pass through the above program can be done in ten to fifteen machine instruction execution times.

It is not an effective technique for very small four states or less or big states or more state graphs. Software Implementation6. Application Comments for Testers Independent testers are not usually concerned with either implementation details or the economics of this approach but with how a state-table or state-graph representation of the behavior of a program or system can help us to design effective tests.

There is an interesting correlation, though: when a finite-state machine model is appropriate, so is a finite-state machine implementation. General 1. The total number of states is equal to the product of the possibilities of factors that make up the state. For every state and input there is exactly one transition specified to exactly one, possibly the same, state.

For every transition there is one output action specified. That output could be trivial, but at least one output does something sensible. For every state there is a sequence of inputs that will drive the system back to the same state. Figure State Bugs2. Identify all the component factors of the state. Identify all the allowable values for each factor. The number of states is the product of the number of allowable values of all the factors.

State BugsImpossible States. State BugsEquivalent States Two states are equivalent if every sequence of inputs starting from one state produces exactly the same sequence of outputs when started from the other state. State BugsEquivalent States Equivalent states can be recognized by the following procedures: 1. The two states are differentiated only by the input that distinguishes between them.

This situation is shown in Figure There are two sets of rows which, except for the state names, have identical state graphs with respect to transitions and outputs. The two sets can be merged see Figure State BugsEquivalent States Equalent states. State BugsEquivalent States. State BugsEquivalent States Unmergable procedure.

Transition Bugs1. Unspecified and Contradictory Transitions Exactly one transition must be specified for every combination of input and state.

Ambiguities are impossible because the program will do something right or wrong for every input. Transition Bugs3. There might be an arcane security reason for rewriting, erasing, and then rewriting again. The details of state 6 will not be covered by this specification; presumably there is a way to get back to state 0. Also, we can credit the specifier with enough intelligence not to have expected a useless rewrite and erase prior to going out of service.

An unreachable state is not impossible, just as unreachable code is not impossible. Output Errors The states, the transitions, and the inputs could be correct, there could be no dead or unreachable states, but the output for the transition could be incorrect. Encoding Bugs The behavior of a finite-state machine is invariant under all encodings.

That is, say that the states are numbered 1 to n. Impact of Bugs 1. Wrong number of states. Wrong transition for a given state-input combination. Wrong output for a given transition. Pairs of states or sets of states that are inadvertently made equivalent factor lost. States or sets of states that are split to create inequivalent duplicates. States or sets of states that have become dead. States or sets of states that have become unreachable.

Define a set of covering input sequences that get back to the initial state when starting from the initial state. For each step in each input sequence, define the expected next state, the expected transition, and the expected output code. Input sequences.

A state diagram is a type of diagram used in computer science and related fields to describe the behavior of systems. State diagrams require that the system described is composed of a finite number of states ; sometimes, this is indeed the case, while at other times this is a reasonable abstraction. Many forms of state diagrams exist, which differ slightly and have different semantics. State diagrams are used to give an abstract description of the behavior of a system. This behavior is analyzed and represented by a series of events that can occur in one or more possible states. Hereby "each diagram usually represents objects of a single class and track the different states of its objects through the system". State diagrams can be used to graphically represent finite-state machines also called finite automata.

Software Testing Techniques. By Sudhakar yadav. The finite-state machine is a functional testing tool and testable design programming tool. State testing strategies are based on the use of finite-state machine models for software structure, software behavior, or specifications of software behavior. Finite-state machines can also be implemented as table-driven software, in which case they are a powerful design option.

So grab a green apple, sit down and chill while your car is undergoing some service. State transition testing is used where some aspect of the system can be described in finite state machine. State Transition testing is defined as the software testing technique in which changes in input conditions causes state changes in the Application under Test AUT. If a finite state machine represents the states and transitions of a class, then the behavior of an object can be captured as a set of transition rules for each method. Testing every transition is usually the recommended level of coverage for a state-transition diagram. All boundaries have been exercised.

View chapterppt from CSE RT at Tirumala Engineering College. Chapter - 11 STATES, STATE GRAPHS, AND TRANSITION TESTING Introduction The.

State Transition Testing is a black box testing technique in which changes made in input conditions cause state changes or output changes in the Application under Test AUT. State transition testing helps to analyze behaviour of an application for different input conditions. Testers can provide positive and negative input test values and record the system behavior. It is the model on which the system and the tests are based. Any system where you get a different output for the same input, depending on what has happened before, is a finite state system.

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State, State Graphs and Transition testing.

Jaymee15 29.05.2021 at 08:16STATES, STATE GRAPHS, AND TRANSITION TESTING. Introduction. • The finite state machine is as fundamental to software engineering as boolean algebra.