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Clearance In Punching And Blanking Operations Pdf

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In this paper, the wear mechanism of punches made of M and M2 steel sheet which are used in blanking process of the rotor part of the low-power asynchronous motor was presented.

The influence of additional TiN coating on the punch flank surface degradation intensity was described. The punch wear influence on the hardness changes close the material intersection surface was determined. The research results indicate that the tool durability ensures the quality of parts blanked from electrotechnical steel.

The results will allow for selection of new tools materials for this type of tools which are used in difficult tribological conditions. The silicon steel sheet is commonly used for the manufacturing of the electrical machines stator and rotor parts. Most often they are produced s a single blanked parts which are assembled in the package.

The most widespread and highly efficient manufacturing technology of this part is blanking process. The tool wear in blanking process results in increase in the concentration size of the plastic deformation in sheared blank close to the intersection surface Ref 1. In the deformed silicon steel sheet, the undesirable residual magnetic appears, which causes increase the sheet structure grains pre-magnetization current during a passage of current direction change Ref 2.

In the case of electrical machines is not advantageous to increase in magnetic lossiness Ref 1. The magnetic lossiness can be reduced by using the laser cutting process. The laser cutting processes have still smaller efficiency in comparison with the classic blanking process Ref 3. Furthermore, the laser cutting process generates material deformation thermal close to the cutting area, which causes a decrease in magnetic properties of electrical machines Ref 4. The blanking process of the parts with appropriate quality requires selection of the optimal process parameters Ref 5 , 6.

Tekiner et al. Ref 6 presented the experimental analysis results of the blanking process for aluminum alloy parts. The effects of the aluminum alloy structure changes in the blanking and bending process were presented by Ravela et al.

Ref 7. They showed that the grains size of blanked sheet affects on the intersection surface quality and burr height. The wear, during the blanking process, causes the change of cutting surface quality and the burr height Ref 8 - Ref 8 studied the effect of punch flank surface wear on the burr height. In studies, the change of punch cutting edge was modeled, and the burr height on stainless steel blanked part edge was observed.

He demonstrated that there is an optimal value of punch-die clearance due to the burr height. The burr height can be reduced by using appropriate blanking clearance Ref 9 - Depending on material group and sheet thickness, the recommended values of blanking clearance are assumed Ref The pun-die clearance affects on the sheet material separation process; hence, the sheared blanks surface quality is obtained Ref The clearance value is particularly important in blanking process of very small and accurate parts Ref Due to the sharp edges and the burr on the blanked elements before coiling winding the insulation is applied Fig.

The paper insulation in the grooves protects windings from wire coating damaging. Additional insulation increases electrical motor production costs and manufacturing time.

Hence, it is reasonable to carry out research related to burr height reduction and its changes as a results of cutting edge wear. Electric motor construction: a a single element of rotor, b rotor with windings and paper insulation in the grooves, c electrical motor assembly. Number of factors, including the material type, influence on the tool flank surface wear during the blanking process Ref Tool material development is related to increasing of tool lifetime by improving mechanical, tribological and thermophysical properties of tool material.

One of these ways is to increase the mechanical properties, including wear resistance, by modification surface of the blanking tools. Anti-wear coatings applied by PVD or CVD method on the cutting tools reduce the intensity of flank surface and cutting edge wear.

The tribological aspects of TiN coating on the M2 steel were presented in the Hong et al. Cheung et al. Ref 21 studied the influence of blanking process parameters change, in this the ASP30 punch material, on the shearing edge wear rate in blanking process of stainless steel sheets and aluminum alloy sheets.

He studied the additional TiN coating layer influence on the punch wear process. Punch material has an impact on the cutting edge wear process. A wide range of blanking test of CRH 0. Ref In the case of blanking process of materials with special mechanical properties, it is reasonable to carry out an experimental research to determine appropriate parameters of cutting process.

In present paper, the wear mechanism of the M2 and M steel punches used in the process of the part blanking from MA silicon steel sheets was described. The analysis of the tool wear influence on the intersection surface quality of rotor sheets and on the hardening zone change was presented. Results of experimental research of punch-die clearance influence on the intersection surface quality were discussed. The research was conducted to explain the tool wear mechanism during part blanking process of the MA silicon steel sheet.

The blanking process was carried out in industrial conditions. The wear test was conducted during the blanking process of the rotor and stator sheet plates used in low-power asynchronous electrical machine—Fig. Different values of the punch-die clearance and different tools materials were used. Stator 1 and rotor 2 elements blanked from silicon steel sheet a , and the tool arrangement during the blanking process b.

The blanking process was carried out up to , cuts. Then the tools were sharpened. The punch coatings were applied by physical v apor deposition PVD method. The TiN coating had a yellow color, about HV5 hardness and 3. In experimental research of punch wear influence on the intersection surface quality and on the material hardness change close to the cutting edge of rotor sheets, the MA M 45 according AISI standard silicon steel sheet was used. The primary structure of sheet material is presented in Fig.

The C6 coating layer is applied by manufacturers of these silicon steel sheets types. The mineral elements have been selected to reduce punching tool wear and favor punching oil retention. During the blanking tools wear increasing, the burr height on the blanked parts is changing Ref By measuring of the burrs height, the tool exploitation phase can be determined—indirect method Fig.

Tool wear curve with the work periods and burr height curve of the blanked element 1—running-in period, 2—period of moderate wear, 3—period of accelerated wear.

The bur height measurements were realized only for rotor sheets edges Fig. The measurement idea is presented schematically in Fig. The arrangement of the planes of the profilograph gauging point movements in accordance with the burrs line is presented in Fig. Measurements on selected measuring length were done for four points, in which the maximal burr height was observed.

For these points, the measurements were repeated three times. Examples of measurement results are presented in Fig. The average burr height was calculated from the formula presented in Fig. In addition, selected parts of the punches were scanned by using Taylor Hobson inductive scanning head. This allowed to make a topography of the blanking tools. Burr height measurement on the blanked rotor part: a measuring line in rotor sheet plates, b measuring idea, c planes arrangement scheme.

The observation and the measurement of the zones on the blanked part intersection surface Fig. The area of material changes was determined by indirect method—hardness measurement. The measurement was carried out at load of 0.

Initial hardness before sheet blanking process was HV0. The distance between measuring point was determined on 0. The hardness measurements were always carried out from the base point point on the measurement points grid in Fig.

Depending on the intersection edge, contour measurements were done in points in material. These points of measurement points grid beyond the material were excluded. Results were used in computer program so as to have the same base two lines in Fig. Then it was possible to create a graphs. The hardened area positions on the sheet samples are presented in Fig. Samples for metallographic observation a , and the observation area close to the intersection surface on the part cross section b.

During the blanking process, the punches are wearing-out especially on the punch flank surface on the distance of sheared blanks pushing out from the separation zone Fig. The abrasive wear was observed. Under the pressure of the blanked sheets, these particles are adhering. This is an adhesive wear of the tool surfaces. Hard particles adhered to the tool surfaces affect on the flank surface defecting during the blanking process. For the M material, the particles adhered boundary is clearly visible Fig.

The concentration of the adhered particles was observed on the contact line ends between blanked material and punch material. On the surface between cutting edge and end of material-punch line contact, the scratches were observed.

Subsequent analysis was carried out after 3D surface scanning. In general, the material degradation and loss of the material in the outer layer of abrasive wear are related to:. A b,g was determined in relation to the punch base surface Fig. Wear types criterion A g —material cross section which has been removed groove , A b —material cross section close to this scratches. The primary tool flank surface of M material is presented in Fig.

Cutting Clearance

Sheet metal operations are performed over metal sheet when length and width is very large compared to thickness. For both punching and blanking operations, the punch and die combination will be used as tools. The optimum clearance can be determined with the help of the following relation,. The angle of inclination is called shear. This has the effect of reducing the sheared area at any one time and the maximum force is much less. In a circular blank, some saving in the scrap may be achieved only through a choice of multiple rows.

The Quality Issue of the Parts Blanked from Thin Silicon Sheets

Tool steel grade JIS; SKD is a well-known raw material for making a high wear resistance of blanking tool in stamping industry. One problem in the blanking process is the high cost of raw material for making punch and die. Therefore, in this study, behavior of wear phenomenon and ability of recycle on the punch of blanking die process were investigated. In the first section, phenomenon and mechanism wear of blanking punch were observed.

The blanking punch act as tool in the desired shape above the sheet metal. Stamping operations are suitable for both short or long production runs, and be conducted with other metal forming operations, and may consist of one or more of a series of more specific processes or techniques, such as: 1. Dogal DP had a low wear rate because of the lubricant behavior of the galvanized layer. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads.

Jeswiet et al. Kibe, Y. Okada, and K.

Wear Mechanism and Ability for Recovery of Tool Steel on Blanking Die Process

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Cutting clearance is the gap between a side of the punch and the corresponding side of the die opening when the punch is entered into the die opening. Cutting clearance should always be expressed as the amount of clearance per side. Proper cutting clearance is necessary for the longer life of the tool.

Cutting clearance is the gap between a side of the punch and the corresponding side of the die opening when the punch is entered into the die opening. Cutting clearance should always be expressed as the amount of clearance per side. Proper cutting clearance is necessary for the longer life of the tool. Quality of the piece part also depends on proper cutting clearance.

Cutting processes are those in which a piece of sheet metal is separated by applying a great enough force to caused the material to fail. The most common cutting processes are performed by applying a shearing force , and are therefore sometimes referred to as shearing processes. When a great enough shearing force is applied, the shear stress in the material will exceed the ultimate shear strength and the material will fail and separate at the cut location.

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In this paper, the wear mechanism of punches made of M and M2 steel sheet which are used in blanking process of the rotor part of the low-power asynchronous motor was presented.