File Name: seed biology and the yield of grain crops writer.zip
Green revolution , great increase in production of food grains especially wheat and rice that resulted in large part from the introduction into developing countries of new, high-yielding varieties, beginning in the midth century. Its early dramatic successes were in Mexico and the Indian subcontinent. The new varieties require large amounts of chemical fertilizers and pesticides to produce their high yields, raising concerns about cost and potentially harmful environmental effects.
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Jack Mitchell, Iain G. Johnston, George W. Variability is observed in biology across multiple scales, ranging from populations, individuals, and cells to the molecular components within cells. This review explores the sources and roles of this variability across these scales, focusing on seeds. From a biological perspective, the role and the impact this variability has on seed behaviour and adaptation to the environment is discussed.
Seeds provide food, feed, fiber and fuel. They are also an important delivery system of genetic information, which is essential for the survival of wild species in ecosystems and the production of agricultural crops. In this review, seed traits and genes that are potentially important for agricultural applications are discussed. Over the long period of crop domestication, seed traits have been modified through intentional or unintentional selections. While most selections have led to seed traits favorable for agricultural consumption, such as larger seeds with higher nutritional value than the wild type, other manipulations in modern breeding sometimes led to negative traits, such as vivipary, precocious germination on the maternal plant or reduced seed vigor, as a side effect during the improvement of other characteristics. Greater effort is needed to overcome these problems that have emerged as a consequence of crop improvement. Seed biology researchers have characterized the function of many genes in the last decade, including those associated with seed domestication, which may be useful in addressing critical issues in modern agriculture, such as the prevention of vivipary and seed shattering or the enhancement of yields.
Title: Seed biology and yield of grain crops / Dennis B. Egli. Description: 2nd edition. (epub). Subjects: LCSH: with him in Phoenix, Arizona, where I had the solitude to concentrate on writing. The final version of this book.
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Two winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. This breeding improvement mainly derived from an increase in grains and yield per spike in addition to grains and yield per spikelet. The number of spikelets per spike was not, or even negatively, correlated with most traits, except of grains per spike, which suggests that this trait was not favoured during breeding. GDAS and GYDAS measure the deviation of a spike of interest from the architecture of a model spike with even grain and yield distribution along all spikelets, respectively.
Correlation between ln total seed yield and ln individual seed mass for the cereal and pulse species. A brief description of the variance approximation used for the variance decomposition analysis. Comparison of three statistical methods used to analyse differences between crops and their progenitors. This special case of evolution under cultivation led to domesticated cereals and pulses requiring humans for their dispersal, but the accompanying mechanisms causing higher productivity in these plants remain unknown. However, the effects of initial domestication events can be inferred from consistent differences between traditional landraces and their wild progenitors.
Сьюзан проследила за его взглядом, прижавшись к поручню. Сначала она не увидела ничего, кроме облаков пара. Но потом поняла, куда смотрел коммандер: на человеческую фигуру шестью этажами ниже, которая то и дело возникала в разрывах пара. Вот она показалась опять, с нелепо скрюченными конечностями.
ГЛАВА 62 Коммандер и Сьюзан стояли у закрытого люка и обсуждали, что делать. - Итак, внизу у нас погибший Чатрукьян, - констатировал Стратмор. - Если мы вызовем помощь, шифровалка превратится в цирк.
- Позволь мне объяснить. - Голос его, однако, мягче не. - Во-первых, у нас есть фильтр, именуемый Сквозь строй, - он не пропустит ни один вирус.