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The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe is a fantasy novel for children by C. Lewis , published by Geoffrey Bles in It is the first published and best known of seven novels in The Chronicles of Narnia —
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe is a fantasy novel for children by C. Lewis , published by Geoffrey Bles in It is the first published and best known of seven novels in The Chronicles of Narnia — Among all the author's books, it is also the most widely held in libraries.
Like the other Chronicles , it was illustrated by Pauline Baynes , and her work has been retained in many later editions. Most of the novel is set in Narnia , a land of talking animals and mythical creatures that is ruled by the evil White Witch. In the frame story , four English children are relocated to a large, old country house following a wartime evacuation.
The youngest, Lucy, visits Narnia three times via the magic of a wardrobe in a spare room. Lucy's three siblings are with her on her third visit to Narnia.
In Narnia, the siblings seem fit to fulfill an old prophecy and find themselves adventuring to save Narnia and their own lives.
The lion Aslan gives his life to save one of the children; he later rises from the dead, vanquishes the White Witch, and crowns the children Kings and Queens of Narnia. Lewis wrote the book for and dedicated it to his goddaughter, Lucy Barfield. She was the daughter of Owen Barfield , Lewis's friend, teacher, adviser and trustee. Peter , Susan , Edmund and Lucy Pevensie are evacuated from London in to escape the Blitz , and sent to live with Professor Digory Kirke at a large house in the English countryside.
While exploring the house, Lucy enters a wardrobe and discovers the magical world of Narnia. Here, she meets the faun named Tumnus , whom she addresses as " Mr. Tumnus invites her to his cave for tea and admits that he intended to report Lucy to the White Witch , the false ruler of Narnia who has kept the land in perpetual winter, but he repents and guides her back home.
Although Lucy's siblings initially disbelieve her story of Narnia, Edmund follows her into the wardrobe and winds up in a separate area of Narnia and meets the White Witch. The Witch plies Edmund with Turkish Delight and persuades him to bring his siblings to her with the promise of being made a prince. Edmund reunites with Lucy and they both return home. Soon afterwards, all four children enter Narnia together, but find that Tumnus has been arrested for treason. The children are befriended by Mr.
Beaver, who tell them of a prophecy that claims the White Witch's rule will end when "two Sons of Adam and two Daughters of Eve" sit on the four thrones of Cair Paravel, and that Narnia's true ruler — a great lion named Aslan — is returning at the Stone Table after several years of absence.
Edmund slips away to the White Witch's castle, where he finds a courtyard filled with the Witch's enemies turned into stone statues. Edmund reports Aslan's return to the White Witch, who begins her movement toward the Stone Table with Edmund in tow, and orders the execution of Edmund's siblings and the Beavers.
Meanwhile, the Beavers realise where Edmund has gone, and lead the children to meet Aslan at the Stone Table. During the trek, the group notices that the snow is melting, and take it as a sign that the White Witch's magic is fading.
This is confirmed by a visit from Father Christmas , who had been kept out of Narnia by the Witch's magic, and he leaves the group with gifts and weapons.
The children and the Beavers reach the Stone Table and meet Aslan and his army. The White Witch's wolf captain Maugrim approaches the camp and attacks Susan, but is killed by Peter. The White Witch arrives and parleys with Aslan, invoking the "Deep Magic from the Dawn of Time" which gives her the right to kill Edmund for his treason. Aslan then speaks to the Witch alone, and on his return he announces that the Witch has renounced her claim on Edmund's life. Aslan and his followers then move the encampment on into the nearby forest.
They watch from a distance as the Witch puts Aslan to death — as they had agreed in their pact to spare Edmund. The next morning, Aslan is resurrected by the "Deeper Magic from before the Dawn of Time", which has the power to reverse death if a willing victim takes the place of a traitor. Aslan takes the girls to the Witch's castle and revives the Narnians that the Witch had turned to stone.
They join the Narnian forces battling the Witch's army. The Narnian army prevails, and Aslan kills the Witch. The Pevensie children are then crowned kings and queens of Narnia at Cair Paravel. After a long and happy reign, the Pevensies, now adults, go on a hunt for the White Stag who is said to grant the wishes of those who catch it. The four arrive at the lamp-post marking Narnia's entrance and, having forgotten about it, unintentionally pass through the wardrobe and return to England; they are children again, with no time having passed since their departure.
They tell the story to Kirke, who believes them and reassures the children that they will return to Narnia one day when they least expect it. Shortly before the Second World War many children were evacuated from London to the English countryside to escape bomber attacks on London by Nazi Germany. On 2 September three school girls, Margaret, Mary and Katherine,   came to live at The Kilns in Risinghurst , Lewis's home three miles east of Oxford city centre. Lewis later suggested that the experience gave him a new appreciation of children and in late September  he began a children's story on an odd sheet that has survived as part of another manuscript:.
How much more of the story Lewis then wrote is uncertain. Roger Lancelyn Green thinks that he might even have completed it. In September Lewis wrote in a letter about stories for children: "I have tried one myself but it was, by the unanimous verdict of my friends, so bad that I destroyed it. The plot element of entering a new world through the back of a wardrobe had certainly entered Lewis's mind by , when he used it to describe his first encounter with really good poetry:.
In August , during a visit by an American writer, Chad Walsh, Lewis talked vaguely about completing a children's book he had begun "in the tradition of E.
Nesbit ". Then everything changed. But then suddenly Aslan came bounding into it. I think I had been having a good many dreams of lions about that time.
Apart from that, I don't know where the Lion came from or why he came. But once he was there, he pulled the whole story together, and soon he pulled the six other Narnian stories in after him.
The major ideas of the book echo lines Lewis had written fourteen years earlier in his alliterative poem The Planets :. This resonance is a central component of the case, promoted chiefly by Oxford University scholar Michael Ward , for the seven Chronicles having been modelled upon the seven classical astrological planets, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe upon Jupiter. After the meal Lewis read two chapters from his new children's story to Green. Lewis asked Green's opinion of the tale and Green said that he thought it was good.
Lucy Barfield received it by the end of May. Lewis's publisher, Geoffrey Bles, allowed him to choose the illustrator for the novel and the Narnia series. Lewis chose Pauline Baynes , possibly based on J.
Tolkien 's recommendation. In December , Bles showed Lewis the first drawings for the novel, and Lewis sent Baynes a note congratulating her, particularly on the level of detail. Lewis's appreciation of the illustrations is evident in a letter he wrote to Baynes after The Last Battle won the Carnegie Medal for best children's book of "is it not rather 'our' medal? I'm sure the illustrations were taken into account as well as the text". The British edition of the novel had 43 illustrations; American editions generally had fewer.
The popular United States paperback edition published by Collier between and , which sold many millions, had only 17 illustrations, many of them severely cropped from the originals, giving many readers in that country a very different experience when reading the novel. All the illustrations were restored for the worldwide HarperCollins edition, although these illustrations lacked the clarity of early printings.
Lewis very much enjoyed writing The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and embarked on the sequel Prince Caspian soon after finishing the first novel. He completed the sequel by end of , less than a year after finishing the initial book. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe had few readers during and was not published until late in , so his initial enthusiasm did not stem from favourable reception by the public.
While Lewis is known today on the strength of the Narnia stories as a highly successful children's writer, the initial critical response was muted.
At the time it was fashionable for children's stories to be realistic; fantasy and fairy tales were seen as indulgent, appropriate only for very young readers and potentially harmful to older children, even hindering their ability to relate to everyday life. Some reviewers considered the tale overtly moralistic or the Christian elements over-stated—attempts to indoctrinate children. Others were concerned that the many violent incidents might frighten children.
Lewis's publisher, Geoffrey Bles, feared that the Narnia tales would not sell, and might damage Lewis's reputation and affect sales of his other books.
Nevertheless, the novel and its successors were highly popular with young readers, and Lewis's publisher was soon eager to release further Narnia stories. A survey by the University of Worcester determined that it was the second most common book that UK adults had read as children, after Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Adults, perhaps limited to parents, ranked Alice and The Lion fifth and sixth as books the next generation should read, or their children should read during their lifetimes.
Lewis 's reply to a letter from Laurence Krieg, an American fan who was having an argument with his mother about the reading order. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe was originally published as the first book in the Narnia Chronicles.
Most reprintings of the novels until the s also reflected the order of original publication. In HarperCollins published the series ordered by the chronology of the events in the novels. This meant The Magician's Nephew was numbered as the first in the series.
HarperCollins, which had previously published editions of the novels outside the United States, also acquired the rights to publish the novels in that country in and used this sequence in the uniform worldwide edition published in that year. Laurence Krieg, a young fan, wrote to Lewis, asking him to adjudicate between his views of the correct sequence of reading the novels—according to the sequence of events, with The Magician's Nephew being placed first—and that of his mother, who thought the order of publication with The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe being placed first was more appropriate.
Lewis wrote back, appearing to support the younger Krieg's views, although he did point out that the views of the author may not be the best guidance, and that perhaps it would not matter what order they were read in. However publication order reflects Lewis's strategy for drawing readers into the world of Narnia. In the book he wrote first, Lucy Pevensie 's discovery of the wardrobe that opens onto a forest and a mysterious lamp post creates a sense of suspense about an unknown land she is discovering for the first time.
This would be anticlimactic if the reader has already been introduced to Narnia in The Magician's Nephew and already knows the origins of Narnia, the wardrobe and the lamp post. Indeed, the narrative of The Magician's Nephew appears to assume that the reader has already read The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and is now being shown its beginnings.
Paul Ford cites several scholars who have weighed in against the decision of HarperCollins to present the books in the order of their internal chronology,  and continues, "most scholars disagree with this decision and find it the least faithful to Lewis's deepest intentions".
Lewis wrote that "The Narnian books are not as much allegory as supposal. Suppose there were a Narnian world and it, like ours, needed redemption. What kind of incarnation and Passion might Christ be supposed to undergo there?
The main story is an allegory of Christ's crucifixion:   Aslan sacrifices himself for Edmund, a traitor who may deserve death, in the same way that Christians believe Jesus sacrificed himself for sinners. Aslan is killed on the Stone Table, symbolising Mosaic Law , which breaks when he is resurrected, symbolising the replacement of the strict justice of Old Testament law with redeeming grace and forgiveness granted on the basis of substitutionary atonement, according to Christian theology.
Lewis is in the public domain and has passed out of copyright. The fact that none of the Narnia series are available on the Project Gutenberg site and in fact no other works by C. Lewis are leads me to believe that they remain in copyright in the U. This perception is in fact true, as I found out….. I wonder how someone goes about finding the current US copyright status of a work?
Aslan, who has long been absent from his land so that some have even doubted his existence has — at last! In this spellbound landscape, filled with creatures of myth and fable, the children face temptation and fear, but learn deep lessons of courage, unselfishness, and wisdom that help them grow in spirit and prepare them for life in our world. It played for the City of London Festival in and that production came to Off-Broadway in New York where it was critically acclaimed. The musical is appropriate for production at Christmas snow and St. Two versions of NARNIA: The Musical are available for licensing from Dramatic Publishing Company — the full length in two acts for actors and a shorter 70 minute version that can be performed by actors.
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. Plot Summary. All Symbols Father Christmas.
This Hollywood movie is available at p and p free just click on the download button below. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe 2. Prince Caspian: The Return to Narnia 3. The Voyage of the Dawn Treader 4.
I wrote this story for you, but when I began it I had not realized that girls grow quicker than books. As a result you are already too old for fairy tales, and by the time it is printed and bound you will be older still. But some day you will be old enough to start reading fairy tales again.
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Сьюзан сообщила Дэвиду, что ее работа заключается в изучении шифров, взламывании их ручными методами и передаче расшифрованных сообщений руководству. Но это было не совсем. Сьюзан переживала из-за того, что ей пришлось солгать любимому человеку, но у нее не было другого выхода.
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CHAPTER I. Lucy Looks into a Wardrobe. Once there were four children whose names were Peter, Susan, Edmund and Lucy. This story is about.Ella R. 26.05.2021 at 17:22
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