File Name: audience perception of the credibility of foreign and local news organizations .zip
Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. This study explores how these negative observations on journalism may influence their use of traditional, citizen, and social media for news. Drawing on two-wave U. Trust in social and citizen media positively predicts use of news via social media, but has no effect on traditional or citizen news use. By contrast, perceived media bias is associated with decreased news use overall.
Keywords trust in social and citizen media, trust in traditional media, media bias perception, journalism. Email: alberto.
Citizen journalism has, to some extent, challenged the hierarchical, uni- directional model of news due to the fact that now ordinary citizens also engage in journalistic practices Goode, ; Kenix, Most previous studies, however, have mainly focused their attention on the effects of trust in mainstream news media e. More specifically, previous research has not determined whether trust in non-mainstream media drive news consumption either in similar or different ways than trust in traditional media does.
A similar gap in the literature exists regarding the possible effects of media bias perception on citizen journalism exposure. This study takes a step toward that direction and sheds light over these important, unresolved questions. First, the article seeks to examine the effect of trust in the media and perceived bias on patterns of news use.
Additionally, the potentially different influences of trust in traditional media versus trust in social and citizen media are explored. To do so, we use data from a two-wave panel survey of a national sample of U.
Traditional, Citizen, and Social Media Use for News In the recent past, the unidirectional flow of information from news media organiza- tions to audience members left little room for participation in the creation or dispersal of information about politics or public affairs. They are citi- zen journalists Carpenter, ; Goode, ; Thurman, The term citizen journalism can be used in a restrictive way, and applied only to the creation of original news content interviewing, reporting, or analyzing news events.
For these reasons, it makes sense to study whether media trust and perceived media bias relate to traditional and citizen media use differently or not. The symbiotic relationship between traditional and citizen news is taking place primarily in the social media arena.
On the other, professional journalists are engaging more and more in active online active relationships with their audience, which often leads the former to give credit to content created by the latter via men- tion, retweet, share, link, etc.
Hence, social media can be a source for mainstream and citizen-created news, but also for hybrid informa- tion containing the attributes of both. This is why this study separately considers the effects of trust in the media and media bias perception on a traditional news use, b citizen news use, and c social media use for news.
Trust in the Media and Media Use Modern societies operate through social division of work and specialization that make it difficult or impossible for individuals to make decisions in all areas of their lives Luhmann, In the political domain, journalists and media are entrusted with assisting citizens in becoming informed to make meaningful political decisions.
Given the important links between media and democracy, political science and com- munication scholars have paid attention to the overall decline in trust in the media over the last decades.
In the U. While a long tradition in media research has explored the related concept of media credibility1 e. Therefore, people who trust in mainstream media tend to consume more news from mainstream sources. Based on these findings and theoretical considerations, the first set of hypotheses are proposed: H1: Trust in traditional media at Wave 1 is positively related to traditional news use at Wave 2.
H2: Trust in traditional news media at Wave 1 is negatively related to citizen news use at Wave 2. In other words, mistrust toward traditional news media at Wave 1 predicts citizen news use at Wave 2. Recent studies on the relationship between trust and online media use have found that skepticism toward mainstream media is negatively related to overall online news exposure.
As discussed above, social media pro- vide almost simultaneous access to both traditional and citizen news. Consequently, the first research question is as follows: RQ1: What is the effect if any of trust in traditional media at Wave 1 on social media use for news at Wave 2?
Based on the above-mentioned impact of trust in main- stream media on news use, one could expect a complementary effect from trust in social and citizen media.
Therefore, trust in citizen and social media should be posi- tively related to citizen and social media use for news, but negatively related to tradi- tional media use. Considering such a complex picture and the absence of previ- ous studies looking at the role of trust in citizen and social media as antecedents of media exposure, the following set of research questions are addressed in the study: RQ2: What is the effect if any of trust in citizen and social media at Wave 1 on traditional news use at Wave 2?
RQ3: What is the effect if any of trust in citizen and social media at Wave 1 on citizen news use at Wave 2? RQ4: What is the effect if any of trust in citizen and social media at Wave 1 on social media use for news at Wave 2? Media Objectivity, Bias Perception, and Media Exposure Over the past decades, public concern regarding the pervasiveness of biased reporting in the U.
All these allegations and perceptions have drawn the attention of a number of scholars, who have tried to deter- mine whether a news media contravene the standards of professional journalism by presenting political issues and news events in an unbalanced manner, b there are perceptive and evaluative psychological phenomena that explain the media bias per- ception beyond the news content itself, and c there is a link between media bias perception and media exposure. The concept of media bias is elusive in nature, and lacks a universal definition.
Thus, routines of newsrooms and production tech- niques of each medium interact with the content resulting in a particular interpretation of reality Meyrowitz, Besides this, the market-oriented model of news produc- tion and the powerful influence of forces outside newsrooms determine not only what is published and what is not, but also the axis or angle around which the story is con- structed e. Although some studies have found partisan bias in certain situations, its direction i.
More recent studies paint a somewhat different picture. The matter of media bias is further complicated with psychological variables. Perceptions on media bias are, in fact, more related to personal attitudes and character- istics than to the actual media content Gunther, ; Niven, Thus, during the and U. Similarly, perceptions of bias and unfairness in traditional media predict a higher consumption of Fox News among those who perceive the channel as more tailored to their beliefs Morris, On the contrary, those individuals who see little or no bias in the tra- ditional media are more likely to consume CNN and other mainstream network news.
Thus our third hypothesis is as follows: H3: Editorial media bias perception at Wave 1 is negatively related to traditional news media use at Wave 2.
Although it has been suggested that media bias perception encourages audiences to consume alternative sources of information, whether this holds true for citizen news media and social media has not been addressed. In addition, social media provide access to both traditional and alternative news media, so the possible impact of bias perception cannot be easily predicted. Therefore, the last set of research questions ask, RQ5: What is the effect if any of editorial media bias perception at Wave 1 on citizen news use at Wave 2?
RQ6: What is the effect if any of editorial media bias perception at Wave 1 on social media use for news at Wave 2? Methods Sample This study uses two waves of panel data spanning 3 months. Respondents were recruited by the media-polling group Nielsen in the United States from , previously registered people from all over the country. To improve external validity of the results, participants of the survey were selected based on quotas derived from the adult U.
In the first wave, distributed between December 15, and January 5, , completed question- naires were obtained from 1, persons. The response rate, Overall, our sample is demographically diverse and comparable to the U. There are, however, some differences between the sample and the U. Variables of Interest Social media use for news. Citizen news use. Although there is a lack of agreement among researchers on what specific practices should be considered as citizen journalism,1 our measurement aims to strike a balance between the different interpretations of the concept.
Editorial media bias perception. Trust in social and citizen media. Trust in traditional media. Control Variables In order to minimize confounding effects, all models control for the influence of an exhaustive set of control variables.
All of these variables have been shown to be asso- ciated with either the independent or the dependent variables, or with both, as explained below. Political discussion frequency. Given this relationship with our dependent variables, our models include discussion frequency as a control. Internal political efficacy. Political interest. Accordingly, this study controls for the effects of this variable to isolate potential con- founding effects. Political knowledge.
Participants were asked eight questions about current political affairs and the functioning of the U. Strength of partisanship. Socio-demographic variables. Statistical Analyses First we checked differences in the mean scores of the variables of interest in Wave 1 and Wave 2.
As expected, no significant differences between waves were observed for trust in traditional media, trust in social and citizen media, editorial media bias percep- tion, traditional news use, citizen news use, or social media use for news paired- samples t tests , so that the sample composition was similar in both waves.
These findings lend support to the notion that our models are robust testing causal order and it is not caused by measurement error or simple attitudinal individual variability of the dependent variables in time.
In order to examine the hypotheses and research questions, this study used three sets of cross-lagged, autoregressive ordinary least squares regressions, one for each dependent variable. Also, for comparative purposes, three series of cross-lagged, but non-autoregressive models were fitted. Analyses were conducted using SPSS version Results The first hypothesis predicted that trust in traditional media would significantly increase traditional news use.
As shown in Tables 1 and 2 first column in each table , empirical support for H1 was not found. The model, as Table 2 shows, accounts for Those who consume news from traditional media and from social media will tend to get news from traditional news sources in the future.
To maximize statistical power, missing values on variables have been replaced with the mean.
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Nonprofit brands are visible everywhere. Amnesty International, Habitat for Humanity, and World Wildlife Fund are some of the most widely recognized brands in the world, more trusted by the public than the best-known for-profit brands. Branding in the nonprofit sector appears to be at an inflection point in its development. Although many nonprofits continue to take a narrow approach to brand management, using it as a tool for fundraising , a growing number are moving beyond that approach to explore the wider, strategic roles that brands can play: driving broad, long-term social goals, while strengthening internal identity, cohesion, and capacity. Brand managers in these pioneering organizations were focusing less on revenue generation and more on social impact and organizational cohesion. Indeed, some of the most interesting brand strategies are being developed in endowed, private foundations with no fundraising targets at all.
Стратмор смущенно посмотрел на труп, затем перевел взгляд на Сьюзан. Неужели она узнала. Этого не может. Стратмор был уверен, что предусмотрел. - Сьюзан, - сказал он, подходя ближе.
Сьюзан скинула туфли на низких каблуках от Сальваторе Феррагамо и блаженно погрузила обтянутые чулками ноги в густой шерстяной ковер. Высокооплачиваемые государственные служащие старались избегать демонстрации личного благосостояния. Для Сьюзан это не составляло проблемы: она была безмерно счастлива в своей скромной двухкомнатной квартире, водила вольво и довольствовалась весьма консервативным гардеробом. Но вот туфли - совсем другое. Даже во время учебы в колледже она старалась покупать самую лучшую обувь.
Пуля ударилась в стену точно над .
Оказавшись в условиях подлинного разведывательного затемнения, АНБ выпустило секретную директиву, одобренную президентом Соединенных Штатов. Заручившись поддержкой федеральных фондов и получив карт-бланш на все необходимые меры для решения проблемы, АНБ приступило к созданию невозможного - первой универсальной машины для вскрытия шифров. Вопреки широко распространенному мнению о том, что такой компьютер создать невозможно, АНБ осталось верным своему девизу: возможно все; на невозможное просто требуется больше времени. Через пять лет, истратив полмиллиона рабочих часов и почти два миллиарда долларов, АН Б вновь доказало жизненность своего девиза. Последний из трех миллионов процессоров размером с почтовую марку занял свое место, все программное обеспечение было установлено, и керамическая оболочка наглухо заделана.
Банк данных снова был в безопасности. В комнате творилось нечто невообразимое.
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