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Artificial intelligence AI is the field devoted to building artificial animals or at least artificial creatures that — in suitable contexts — appear to be animals and, for many, artificial persons or at least artificial creatures that — in suitable contexts — appear to be persons. On the constructive side, many of the core formalisms and techniques used in AI come out of, and are indeed still much used and refined in, philosophy: first-order logic and its extensions; intensional logics suitable for the modeling of doxastic attitudes and deontic reasoning; inductive logic, probability theory, and probabilistic reasoning; practical reasoning and planning, and so on. In light of this, some philosophers conduct AI research and development as philosophy. In the present entry, the history of AI is briefly recounted, proposed definitions of the field are discussed, and an overview of the field is provided. In addition, both philosophical AI AI pursued as and out of philosophy and philosophy of AI are discussed, via examples of both. The entry ends with some de rigueur speculative commentary regarding the future of AI.
By Priya Pedamkar. Intelligence can be defined as a general mental ability for reasoning, problem-solving, and learning. Because of its general nature, intelligence integrates cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, or planning. On the basis of this definition, intelligence can be reliably measured by standardized tests with obtained scores predicting several broad social outcomes such as educational achievement, job performance, health, and longevity. Artificial Intelligence is the study and design of Intelligent agent, These intelligent agents have the ability to analyze the environments and produce actions which maximize success.
Artificial intelligence AI , the ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings. The term is frequently applied to the project of developing systems endowed with the intellectual processes characteristic of humans, such as the ability to reason, discover meaning, generalize, or learn from past experience. Since the development of the digital computer in the s, it has been demonstrated that computers can be programmed to carry out very complex tasks—as, for example, discovering proofs for mathematical theorems or playing chess —with great proficiency. Still, despite continuing advances in computer processing speed and memory capacity, there are as yet no programs that can match human flexibility over wider domains or in tasks requiring much everyday knowledge. On the other hand, some programs have attained the performance levels of human experts and professionals in performing certain specific tasks, so that artificial intelligence in this limited sense is found in applications as diverse as medical diagnosis , computer search engines , and voice or handwriting recognition. Artificial intelligence AI is the ability of a computer or a robot controlled by a computer to do tasks that are usually done by humans because they require human intelligence and discernment.
The philosophy of artificial intelligence is a branch of the philosophy of technology that explores artificial intelligence and its implications for knowledge and understanding of intelligence , ethics , consciousness , epistemology , and free will. Some scholars argue that the AI community's dismissal of philosophy is detrimental. The philosophy of artificial intelligence attempts to answer such questions as follows: . Questions like these reflect the divergent interests of AI researchers , cognitive scientists and philosophers respectively. The scientific answers to these questions depend on the definition of "intelligence" and "consciousness" and exactly which "machines" are under discussion.
MATT CARTER, Minds and Computers: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Artificial. Intelligence. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. £
Before leading to the meaning of artificial intelligence let understand what is the meaning of the Intelligence- Intelligence: The ability to learn and solve problems. How can one judge the intelligence? Intelligence, as we know, is the ability to acquire and apply the knowledge. Knowledge is the information acquired through experience. Experience is the knowledge gained through exposure training.
Expert Systems and Applied Artificial Intelligence. The field of artificial intelligence AI is concerned with methods of developing systems that display aspects of intelligent behaviour. These systems are designed to imitate the human capabilities of thinking and sensing.
Ужасное уродство, правда. Но не искалеченная рука привлекла внимание Беккера. Он увидел кое-что другое.
Но это невозможно.
Ей показалось, что столь своевременная кончина Танкадо решила все проблемы. - Коммандер, - сказала она, - если власти говорят, что он умер от сердечного приступа, это значит, мы к его смерти не причастны. Его партнер поймет, что АНБ не несет за нее ответственности.
Ты ничего не понимаешь! - кричал Хейл. - На его компьютере уже стоял жучок! - Он говорил, стараясь, чтобы его слова были слышны между сигналами. - Этот жучок вмонтировал кто-то другой, и я подозреваю, что по распоряжению директора Фонтейна. Я просто попал на все готовое.
Но одно не давало Фонтейну покоя - то, что Стратмор решил прибегнуть к услугам Халохота. Тот, конечно, был мастером своего дела, но наемник остается наемником. Можно ли ему доверять.
Внизу что-то щелкнуло. Затем он снял наружную защелку в форме бабочки, снова огляделся вокруг и потянул дверцу на. Она была небольшой, приблизительно, наверное, метр на метр, но очень тяжелой.
Matt Carter, Minds and Computers: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press,