File Name: the official history of north sea oil and gas file.zip
North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons , comprising liquid petroleum and natural gas , produced from petroleum reservoirs beneath the North Sea. In the petroleum industry , the term "North Sea" often includes areas such as the Norwegian Sea and the area known as "West of Shetland", "the Atlantic Frontier" or "the Atlantic Margin" that is not geographically part of the North Sea. Brent crude is still used today as a standard benchmark for pricing oil, although the contract now refers to a blend of oils from fields in the northern North Sea.
Commercial extraction of oil on the shores of the North Sea dates back to , when James Young retorted oil from torbanite boghead coal, or oil shale mined in the Midland Valley of Scotland. Gas was found by chance in a water well near Hamburg in , leading to minor gas discoveries in Zechstein dolomites elsewhere in Germany. Seismic exploration and the first well followed later that year. The situation was transformed in December , when Phillips Petroleum discovered oil in Chalk of Danian age at Ekofisk , in Norwegian waters in the central North Sea.
Amoco were astonished when the well discovered oil. The Piper oilfield was discovered in and the Statfjord Field and the Ninian Field  in , with the Ninian reservoir consisting of Middle Jurassic sandstones at a depth of m subsea in a "westward tilted horst block". Offshore production, like that of the North Sea, became more economical after the oil crisis caused the world oil price to quadruple, followed by the oil crisis , causing another tripling in the oil price. Boone Pickens' wife Bea, "the only oil field in the North Sea named for a woman"  in 49 m of water.
Volatile weather conditions in Europe's North Sea have made drilling particularly hazardous, claiming many lives see Oil platform. The conditions also make extraction a costly process; by the s, costs for developing new methods and technologies to make the process both efficient and safe, far exceeded NASA 's budget to land a man on the moon. The Gullfaks oil field was discovered in The largest field found in the past five years on the Norwegian part of the North Sea, is the Johan Sverdrup oil field which was discovered in , with further oil of the same field was discovered the next year.
Total reserves of the field are estimated at 1. Production started 5 October It is one of the largest discoveries made in the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The distances, number of workplaces and fierce weather push the , square kilometre , square mile North Sea area to operate the world's largest fleet of heavy instrument flight rules IFR helicopters, some specifically developed for the North Sea. They carry about two million passengers per year from sixteen onshore bases, of which Aberdeen Airport is the world's busiest with , passengers per year.
Following the Convention on the Continental Shelf and after some disputes on the rights to natural resource exploitation  the national limits of the exclusive economic zones were ratified.
Five countries are involved in oil production in the North Sea. All operate a tax and royalty licensing regime. The respective sectors are divided by median lines agreed in the late s:.
The British and Norwegian sectors hold most of the large oil reserves. Exact figures are debatable, because methods of estimating reserves vary and it is often difficult to forecast future discoveries. The production is expected to fall to one-third of its peak by The geological disposition of the UK's oil and gas fields is outlined in the following table.
In the North Sea , Norway's Equinor natural-gas platform Sleipner strips carbon dioxide out of the natural gas with amine solvents and disposes of this carbon dioxide by geological sequestration " carbon sequestration " while keeping up gas production pressure.
As of April , BP is considering a trial of large-scale sequestration of carbon dioxide stripped from power plant emissions in the Miller oilfield as its reserves are depleted.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the band, see North Sea Gas band. Norway portal Scotland portal Energy portal. Blackwell Publishing. M Geology of Giant Petroleum Fields. AAPG A The History of the British Petroleum Company. Cambridge University Press. Vertical Magazine. Archived from the original on 18 April Retrieved 18 April Oil Strike North Sea. Luath Press. UK Offshore Operators Association. Archived from the original on Retrieved Rigzone Empowers Professionals in Oil and Gas".
Offshore Technology. The Geology of Scotland: Edited by N. Geological Society of London. February Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences — Geologie en Mijnbouw. A guide to North Sea oil and gas technology. Retrieved 29 September Energy in the United Kingdom. BP Royal Dutch Shell.
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moment in the economic history of the industry, when both record investment levels and The discovery and exploitation of North Sea oil and gas has been 'one workplace – described by one senior HSE official as a heliport, http://hazarsiiraksamlari.org
Scotland and Oil Revenue. When considering Scottish independence, it is hard to avoid the topic of the North Sea Oil and Gas industry and its potential impact on the finances of an independent Scotland. This article will explore the contribution that this industry has made and continues to make to the public purse and to the wider economy. Although there was limited oil extraction from the North Sea prior to the s, large scale commercial operations came into effect after the introduction of the Continental Shelf Act in Government revenue from the North Sea started to accrue in although, until , these receipts were purely based on royalties from licenses.
We work with the industry and government to maximise the economic recovery of UK oil and gas and support the UK government in its drive to reach net zero greenhouse gas emissions by The OGA is fully committed to enabling the achievement of the UK government's commitment to reach net zero emissions by The UKCS is one of the most technologically advanced hydrocarbon provinces in the world. The latest announcements, reports, consultations and events, from OGA and industry.
The NORSOK standards are developed by the Norwegian petroleum industry to ensure adequate safety, value adding and cost effectiveness for petroleum industry developments and operations. Furthermore, NORSOK standards are as far as possible intended to replace oil company specifications and serve as references in the authorities regulations. The standards can be added to a web subscription, printed directly or you can buy printed and bound copies sendt to you. The regulations refer to standards that provide more detailed descriptions of how things should be done.
North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons , comprising liquid petroleum and natural gas , produced from petroleum reservoirs beneath the North Sea.
We work with the industry and government to maximise the economic recovery of UK oil and gas and support the UK government in its drive to reach net zero greenhouse gas emissions by The OGA is fully committed to enabling the achievement of the UK government's commitment to reach net zero emissions by The UKCS is one of the most technologically advanced hydrocarbon provinces in the world.
Секрет выражения без воска был ему слишком дорог. Он уходил корнями в давние времена. В эпоху Возрождения скульпторы, оставляя изъяны при обработке дорогого мрамора, заделывали их с помощью сеrа, то есть воска. Статуя без изъянов, которую не нужно было подправлять, называлась скульптурой sin cera, иными словами - без воска. С течением времени это выражение стало означать нечто честное, правдивое.
Беккер искал какой-нибудь перекресток, любой выход, но с обеих сторон были только запертые двери. Теперь он уже бежал по узкому проходу. Шаги все приближались. Беккер оказался на прямом отрезке, когда вдруг улочка начала подниматься вверх, становясь все круче и круче. Он почувствовал боль в ногах и сбавил скорость. Дальше бежать было некуда. Как трасса, на продолжение которой не хватило денег, улочка вдруг оборвалась.
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Наконец-то, подумал пассажир такси. Наконец-то. ГЛАВА 77 Стратмор остановился на площадке у своего кабинета, держа перед собой пистолет. Сьюзан шла следом за ним, размышляя, по-прежнему ли Хейл прячется в Третьем узле.
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