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Using cultural anthropology to analyze debates that reverberate throughout the human sciences, this text looks at cultural anthropology's past accomplishments, its current predicaments, its future direction, and the insights it has to offer other fields of study. Read more Table of contents. Please choose whether or not you want other users to be able to see on your profile that this library is a favorite of yours.
As an intellectual movement postmodernism was born as a challenge to several modernist themes that were first articulated during the Enlightenment. These include scientific positivism, the inevitability of human progress, and the potential of human reason to address any essential truth of physical and social conditions and thereby make them amenable to rational control Boyne and Rattansi For his part, Lawrence Kuznar labels postmodern anyone whose thinking includes most or all of these elements.
Both are based on subjectivity. First, because of the subjectivity of the human object, anthropology, according to the epistemological argument cannot be a science; and in any event the subjectivity of the human subject precludes the possibility of science discovering objective truth.
Postmodernism has its origins as an eclectic social movement originating in aesthetics, architecture and philosophy Bishop In architecture and art, fields which are distinguished as the oldest claimants to the name, postmodernism originated in the reaction against abstraction in painting and the International Style in architecture Callinicos Nietzsche asserted that truth was simply: a mobile army of metaphors, metonyms, and anthropomorphisms — in short, a sum of human relations, which have been enhanced, transposed, and embellished poetically and rhetorically, and which after long use seem firm, canonical, and obligatory to a people: truths are illusions about which one has forgotten that this is what they are.
According to Kuznar, postmodernists trace this skepticism about truth and the resulting relativism it engenders from Nietzsche to Max Weber and Sigmund Freud, and finally to Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault and other contemporary postmodernists Reed defines the context of investigation as the social and intellectual context of the investigator — essentially her social identity, beliefs and memories.
The context of explanation, on the other hand, refers to the reality that she wishes to investigate, and in particular the social actions she wishes to explain and the surrounding social environment, or context, that she explains them with.
The driving force behind the postmodern turn was a deep skepticism about whether the investigator could adequately, effectively, or honestly integrate the context of investigation into the context of explanation and, as a result, write true social knowledge. This concern was most prevalent in cultural and linguistic anthropology, less so in archaeology, and had the least effect on physical anthropology, which is generally regarded as the most scientific of the four subfields.
Modernity first came into being with the Renaissance. In essence this term emerged in the context of the development of the capitalist state. Postmodernity is the state or condition of being postmodern. The archaeologist Mathew Johnson has characterized postmodernity, or the postmodern condition, as disillusionment with Enlightenment ideals Johnson Some social critics have attempted to explain the postmodern condition in terms of the historical and social milieu which spawned it.
Therefore, increasingly, choice becomes meaningless. Modernization is a diverse unity of socio-economic changes generated by scientific and technological discoveries and innovations. Although in its broadest definition modernism refers to modern thought, character or practice, the term is usually restricted to a set of artistic, musical, literary, and more generally aesthetic movements that emerged in Europe in the late nineteenth century and would become institutionalized in the academic institutions and art galleries of post-World War I Europe and America Boyne and Rattansi These themes are very closely related to Postmodernism Boyne and Rattansi ; Sarup For instance, it is difficult to reconcile postmodernist approaches in fields like art and music to certain postmodern trends in philosophy, sociology, and anthropology.
However, it is in some sense unified by a commitment to a set of cultural projects privileging heterogeneity, fragmentation, and difference, as well as a relatively widespread mood in literary theory, philosophy, and the social sciences that question the possibility of impartiality, objectivity, or authoritative knowledge Boyne and Rattansi In the previous section, it has been asserted that, in the broadest sense, rejecting many fundamental elements of the Enlightenment project has been identified as the stimulus for the development of postmodernism.
This section addresses cross-currents within the varied practices found inside of what might loosely be called the Postmodernism project. An important feature of postcolonialist thought is its assertion that modernism and modernity are part of the colonial project of domination. As should be readily apparent, the issues of postcolonialism are uncomfortably relevant to contemporary anthropological investigations.
Poststructuralism In reaction to the abstraction of cultural data characteristic of model building, cultural relativists argue that model building hindered understanding of thought and action.
From this claim arose poststructuralist concepts such as developed in the work of Pierre Bourdieu He asserts that structural models should not be replaced but enriched.
Poststructuralists like Bourdieu are concerned with reflexivity and the search for logical practice. In general postructuralism expresses disenchantment with static, mechanistic, and controlling models of culture, instead privileging social process and agency. Jean Baudrillard — Baudrillard was a sociologist who began his career exploring the Marxist critique of capitalism Sarup Eventually, however, Baudrillard felt that Marxist tenets did not effectively evaluate commodities, so he turned to postmodernism.
Baudrillard breaks down modernity and postmodernity in an effort to explain the world as a set of models. He identifies early modernity as the period between the Renaissance and the Industrial Revolution, modernity as the period at the start of the Industrial Revolution, and postmodernity as the period of mass media cinema and photography.
Jacques Derrida — is identified as a poststructuralist and a skeptical postmodernist. Much of his writing is concerned with the deconstruction of texts and probing the relationship of meaning between texts Bishop Michel Foucault — — Foucault was a French philosopher who attempted to show that what most people think of as the permanent truths of human nature and society actually change throughout the course of history.
While challenging the influences of Marx and Freud, Foucault postulated that everyday practices enabled people to define their identities and systemize knowledge. Foucault is considered a postmodern theorist precisely because his work upset the conventional understanding of history as a chronology of inevitable facts. Alternatively, he depicted history as existing under layers of suppressed and unconscious knowledge in and throughout history.
These under layers are the codes and assumptions of order, the structures of exclusion that legitimate the epistemes by which societies achieve identities Appignanesi Clifford Geertz — was a prominent anthropologist best known for his work with religion. Closely identified with interpretive anthropology, he was somewhat ambivalent about anthropological postmodernism. He divided it into two movements that both came to fruition in the s. But they did induce a certain self-awareness and a certain candor also, into a discipline not without need of them..
Ian Hodder — is a founder of postprocessualism and is generally considered one of the most influential archaeologists of the last thirty years. Working in sub-Sahara Africa, Hodder and his students documented how material culture was not merely a reflection of sociopolitical organization, but was also an active element that could be used to disguise, invert, and distort social relations. Since culture is preceded by ethics, therefore ethics cannot be culturally bound as argued by anthropologists in the past.
These philosophies are evident in her other works such as, Death Without Weeping. Jean-Francois Lyotard — was the author of a highly influential work on postmodern society called, The Postmodern Condition This book was a critique of the current state of knowledge among modern postindustrial nations such as those found in the United States and much of Western Europe. Lyotard suggests that: The Postmodern would be that which …that which refuses the consolation of correct forms, refuses the consensus of taste permitting a common experience of nostalgia for the impossible, and inquires into new presentations—not to take pleasure in them, but to better produce the feeling that there is something unpresentable.
In contrast to the ethnographies written by anthropologists in the first half of the 20th Century, Lyotard states that an all-encompassing account of a culture cannot be accomplished.
The concept of Culture as a whole was tied not only to modernity, but to evolutionary theory and, implicitly, to eurocentrism. Lament — Lament is a practice of ritualized weeping Wilce Postmodernists see metanarratives as unfairly totalizing or naturalizing in their generalizations about the state of humanity and historical process Polyvocality — Paralleling the generally relatativst and skeptical attitudes towards scientific authority, many postmodernists advocate polyvocality, which maintains that there exists multiple, legitimate versions of reality or truths as seen from different perspectives.
Postmodernists construe Enlightenment rationalism and scientific positivism as an effort to impose hegemonic values and political control on the world. By challenging the authority of anthropologists and other Western intellectuals, postmodernists see themselves as defending the integrity of local cultures and helping weaker peoples to oppose their oppressors Trigger This is not only true of political power, but also includes people recognizing things such as sexuality as forces to which they are subject.
Radical skepticism — The systematic skepticism of grounded theoretical perspectives and objective truths espoused by many postmodernists had a profound effect on anthropology.
This skepticism has shifted focus from the observation of a particular society to a reflexive consideration of the anthropological observer Bishop According to Rosenau , postmodernists can be divided into two very broad camps, Skeptics and Affirmatives. They also reject any understanding of time because for them the modern understanding of time is oppressive in that it controls and measures individuals. They reject Theory because theories are abundant, and no theory is considered more correct that any other.
They do not, however, feel that Theory needs to be abolished but merely transformed. Affirmatives are less rigid than Skeptics. They support movements organized around peace, environment, and feminism Rosenau Relativism — Relativism is the notion that different perspectives have no absolute truth or validity, but rather possess only relative, subjective value according to distinctions in perception and consideration. Viewing man as part of nature…requires us to see cognitive and evaluative activities as part of nature too, and hence varying from organism to organism and context to context.
Gellner in [Asad ]. Anthropological theory of the s may be best understood as the heir of relativism. Self-Reflexivity — In anthropology, self-reflexivity refers to the process by which anthropologists question themselves and their work, both theoretically and practically.
Self-Reflexivity therefore leads to a consciousness of the process of knowledge creation There is an increased awareness of the collection of data and the limitation of methodological systems. This idea underlies the postmodernist affinity for studying the culture of anthropology and ethnography. One of the essential elements of Postmodernism is that it constitutes an attack against theory and methodology. Despite this claim, however, there are two methodologies characteristic of Postmodernism.
As substitutes for the scientific method the affirmatives look to feelings and personal experience. Deconstruction emphasizes negative critical capacity. Deconstruction involves demystifying a text to reveal internal arbitrary hierarchies and presuppositions. By examining the margins of a text, the effort of deconstruction examines what it represses, what it does not say, and its incongruities.
It does not solely unmask error, but redefines the text by undoing and reversing polar opposites. Deconstruction does not resolve inconsistencies, but rather exposes hierarchies involved for the distillation of information Rosenau It is more a vision than data observation. For postmodernists there are an endless number of interpretations. Foucault argues that everything is interpretation Dreyfus and Rabinow Anti-positivists defend the notion that every interpretation is false.
Critical Examination of Ethnographic Explanation — The unrelenting re-examination of the nature of ethnography inevitably leads to a questioning of ethnography itself as a mode of cultural analysis. Postmodernist theory has led to a heightened sensitivity within anthropology to the collection of data.
Demystification — Perhaps the greatest accomplishments of postmodernism is the focus upon uncovering and criticizing the epistemological and ideological motivations in the social sciences, as well as the increased attention to the factors contributing to the production of knowledge.
Even if we do not value all interpretations as equally valid for whatever reason, today it is generally recognized although perhaps not always done in practice that anthropologists must actively consider the perspectives and wellbeing of the people being studied.
He argues that these moral models are purely subjective. From there he takes issue with the postmodernist attack on objectivity. He states that objectivity is in no way dehumanizing nor is objectivity impossible.
In this chapter we attempt to describe ethnography, its evolution, and how it has been used in human computer interaction HCI and computer supported cooperative work CSCW research. We conclude by considering some recent developments in ethnographic techniques - especially with regard to 'auto-ethnography' - and a range of problems and complexities in the use of the method in HCI that have arisen in recent years. Ethnography is a qualitative orientation to research that emphasises the detailed observation of people in naturally occurring settings. The ethnographic approaches currently used in HCI clearly have their origins in social anthropology. The move towards naturalistic observational methods in anthropology is generally attributed to Malinowski and popularised by other anthropologists such as Boas, and, more controversially perhaps, Margaret Mead see Freeman ; Shankman
of Minnesota Press. Marcus, George E., and Michael M. J. Fischer. Anthropology as cultural critique: An experimental moment in the human sciences.
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ТРАНСТЕКСТ появился на свет. Хотя создававшийся в обстановке повышенной секретности ТРАНСТЕКСТ стал плодом усилий многих умов и принцип его работы не был доступен ни одному человеку в отдельности, он, в сущности, был довольно прост: множество рук делают груз легким. Три миллиона процессоров работали параллельно - считая с неимоверной скоростью, перебирая все мыслимые комбинации символов.
Его нижняя губа на мгновение оттопырилась, но заговорил он не. Слова, сорвавшиеся с его языка, были определенно произнесены на английском, но настолько искажены сильным немецким акцентом, что их смысл не сразу дошел до Беккера. - Проваливай и умри. Дэвид даже вздрогнул от неожиданности. - Простите.
Он не мог понять, как до него не дошло. Росио - одно из самых популярных женских имен в Испании. В нем заключено все, что ассоциируется с представлением о молодой католичке: чистота, невинность, природная красота. Чистота заключена в буквальном значении имени - Капля Росы.
Коммандер, мне действительно кажется, что нужно проверить… - Фил, - сказал Стратмор чуть более строго, - ТРАНСТЕКСТ в полном порядке. Если твоя проверка выявила нечто необычное, то лишь потому, что это сделали мы. А теперь, если не возражаешь… - Стратмор не договорил, но Чатрукьян понял его без слов.
Рано или поздно я отсюда смоюсь. - Я этого не переживу. В этот момент Сьюзан поймала себя на том, что готова взвалить на Хейла вину за все свои неприятности. За Цифровую крепость, волнения из-за Дэвида, зато, что не поехала в Смоуки-Маунтинс, - хотя он был ко всему этому не причастен.
- Она застонала. Все четко, ясно и. Танкадо зашифровал Цифровую крепость, и только ему известен ключ, способный ее открыть.
22: РУЧНОЕ ОТКЛЮЧЕНИЕ ГЛАВА 35 Беккер в шоке смотрел на Росио. - Вы продали кольцо. Девушка кивнула, и рыжие шелковистые волосы скользнули по ее плечам. Беккер молил Бога, чтобы это оказалось неправдой. - Рего… Но… Она пожала плечами и произнесла по-испански: - Девушке возле парка.
Компьютер, который постоянно отслеживал работу ТРАНСТЕКСТА, оказался выключен, вокруг не было ни души. - Эй! - крикнул Чатрукьян. Ответа не последовало. В лаборатории царил образцовый порядок, словно здесь никто не появлялся уже много часов.
Должен быть какой-то другой выход.
As an intellectual movement postmodernism was born as a challenge to several modernist themes that were first articulated during the Enlightenment.Azrael C. 04.06.2021 at 01:30
In this interview of April , the American anthropologist George Marcus comes back on his academic trajectory in order to enlighten the genesis of the article on multi-sited ethnography.