File Name: information security and cyber security relationship .zip
Houses can be built to a strict building code using fire retardant materials, have fire alarms and fire suppression systems, and a fire can still break out and burn the house down. Presentation Security.
Information security vs. More and more, the terms information security and cybersecurity are used interchangeably. The media and recently elected government officials are dumbing down the world of security, specifically the protection of information in all forms. Everyday the major news outlets in all countries are reporting cyberattacks organizations of all types. Social media is constantly buzzing with the latest cyberattack on well known companies or the latest list of hacked emails being circulated to expose someone.
Computer security , cybersecurity or information technology security IT security is the protection of computer systems and networks from information disclosure, theft of or damage to their hardware , software , or electronic data , as well as from the disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
The field is becoming increasingly significant due to the increased reliance on computer systems , the Internet  and wireless network standards such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi , and due to the growth of "smart" devices , including smartphones , televisions , and the various devices that constitute the " Internet of things ".
Owing to its complexity, both in terms of politics and technology, cybersecurity is also one of the major challenges in the contemporary world. The April session organized by Willis Ware at the Spring Joint Computer Conference , and the later publication of the Ware Report , were foundational moments in the history of the field of computer security.
Protecting information systems includes evaluating software, identifying security flaws, and taking steps to correct the flaws, which is a defensive action. Collecting intelligence includes exploiting security flaws to extract information, which is an offensive action. Correcting security flaws makes the flaws unavailable for NSA exploitation.
The agency analyzes commonly used software in order to find security flaws, which it reserves for offensive purposes against competitors of the United States. The agency seldom takes defensive action by reporting the flaws to software producers so they can eliminate the security flaws.
The offensive strategy worked for a while, but eventually other nations, including Russia, Iran, North Korea, and China have acquired their own offensive capability, and tend to use it against the United States.
NSA contractors created and sold "click-and-shoot" attack tools to U. NSAs employees and contractors have been recruited at high salaries by adversaries, anxious to compete in cyberwarfare.
For example, in , the United States and Israel began exploiting security flaws in the Microsoft Windows operating system to attack and damage equipment used in Iran to refine nuclear materials. Iran responded by heavily investing in their own cyberwarfare capability, which they began using against the United States.
A vulnerability is a weakness in design, implementation, operation, or internal control. Most of the vulnerabilities that have been discovered are documented in the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures CVE database. An exploitable vulnerability is one for which at least one working attack or " exploit" exists.
A backdoor in a computer system, a cryptosystem or an algorithm , is any secret method of bypassing normal authentication or security controls. They may exist for many reasons, including by original design or from poor configuration. They may have been added by an authorized party to allow some legitimate access, or by an attacker for malicious reasons; but regardless of the motives for their existence, they create a vulnerability.
Backdoors can be very hard to detect, and detection of backdoors are usually discovered by someone who has access to application source code or intimate knowledge of Operating System of the computer. Denial of service attacks DoS are designed to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users. While a network attack from a single IP address can be blocked by adding a new firewall rule, many forms of Distributed denial of service DDoS attacks are possible, where the attack comes from a large number of points — and defending is much more difficult.
Such attacks can originate from the zombie computers of a botnet or from a range of other possible techniques, including reflection and amplification attacks , where innocent systems are fooled into sending traffic to the victim.
An unauthorized user gaining physical access to a computer is most likely able to directly copy data from it. They may also compromise security by making operating system modifications, installing software worms , keyloggers , covert listening devices or using wireless microphone. Even when the system is protected by standard security measures, these may be bypassed by booting another operating system or tool from a CD-ROM or other bootable media. Disk encryption and Trusted Platform Module are designed to prevent these attacks.
Eavesdropping is the act of surreptitiously listening to a private computer "conversation" communication , typically between hosts on a network. Even machines that operate as a closed system i. Surfacing in , a new class of multi-vector,  polymorphic  cyber threats combined several types of attacks and changed form to avoid cybersecurity controls as they spread.
Phishing is the attempt of acquiring sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details directly from users by deceiving the users. The fake website often asks for personal information, such as log-in details and passwords. This information can then be used to gain access to the individual's real account on the real website.
Preying on a victim's trust, phishing can be classified as a form of social engineering. Attackers are using creative ways to gain access to real accounts. A common scam is for attackers to send fake electronic invoices  to individuals showing that they recently purchased music, apps, or other, and instructing them to click on a link if the purchases were not authorized.
Privilege escalation describes a situation where an attacker with some level of restricted access is able to, without authorization, elevate their privileges or access level. For example, a standard computer user may be able to exploit a vulnerability in the system to gain access to restricted data; or even become " root " and have full unrestricted access to a system.
Reverse engineering is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, code, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon. Social engineering , in the context of computer security, aims to convince a user to disclose secrets such as passwords, card numbers, etc. A common scam involves emails sent to accounting and finance department personnel, impersonating their CEO and urgently requesting some action.
In May , the Milwaukee Bucks NBA team was the victim of this type of cyber scam with a perpetrator impersonating the team's president Peter Feigin , resulting in the handover of all the team's employees' W-2 tax forms. Spoofing is the act of masquerading as a valid entity through falsification of data such as an IP address or username , in order to gain access to information or resources that one is otherwise unauthorized to obtain. Tampering describes a malicious modification or alteration of data.
So-called Evil Maid attacks and security services planting of surveillance capability into routers are examples. Malicious software malware installed on a computer can leak personal information, can give control of the system to the attacker and can delete data permanently.
Employee behavior can have a big impact on information security in organizations. Cultural concepts can help different segments of the organization work effectively or work against effectiveness towards information security within an organization. Information security culture is the " Andersson and Reimers found that employees often do not see themselves as part of their organization's information security effort and often take actions that impede organizational changes. The growth in the number of computer systems and the increasing reliance upon them by individuals, businesses, industries, and governments means that there is an increasing number of systems at risk.
The computer systems of financial regulators and financial institutions like the U. Securities and Exchange Commission , SWIFT, investment banks, and commercial banks are prominent hacking targets for cybercriminals interested in manipulating markets and making illicit gains.
Computers control functions at many utilities, including coordination of telecommunications , the power grid , nuclear power plants , and valve opening and closing in water and gas networks. The Internet is a potential attack vector for such machines if connected, but the Stuxnet worm demonstrated that even equipment controlled by computers not connected to the Internet can be vulnerable. In , the Computer Emergency Readiness Team , a division of the Department of Homeland Security , investigated 79 hacking incidents at energy companies.
The aviation industry is very reliant on a series of complex systems which could be attacked. The consequences of a successful attack range from loss of confidentiality to loss of system integrity, air traffic control outages, loss of aircraft, and even loss of life. Desktop computers and laptops are commonly targeted to gather passwords or financial account information, or to construct a botnet to attack another target.
Smartphones , tablet computers , smart watches , and other mobile devices such as quantified self devices like activity trackers have sensors such as cameras, microphones, GPS receivers, compasses, and accelerometers which could be exploited, and may collect personal information, including sensitive health information.
WiFi, Bluetooth, and cell phone networks on any of these devices could be used as attack vectors, and sensors might be remotely activated after a successful breach.
The increasing number of home automation devices such as the Nest thermostat are also potential targets. Large corporations are common targets. In many cases attacks are aimed at financial gain through identity theft and involve data breaches. Examples include loss of millions of clients' credit card details by Home Depot ,  Staples ,  Target Corporation ,  and the most recent breach of Equifax.
Medical records have been targeted in general identify theft, health insurance fraud, and impersonating patients to obtain prescription drugs for recreational purposes or resale. Not all attacks are financially motivated, however: security firm HBGary Federal suffered a serious series of attacks in from hacktivist group Anonymous in retaliation for the firm's CEO claiming to have infiltrated their group,   and Sony Pictures was hacked in with the apparent dual motive of embarrassing the company through data leaks and crippling the company by wiping workstations and servers.
Vehicles are increasingly computerized, with engine timing, cruise control , anti-lock brakes , seat belt tensioners, door locks, airbags and advanced driver-assistance systems on many models. Additionally, connected cars may use WiFi and Bluetooth to communicate with onboard consumer devices and the cell phone network.
All of these systems carry some security risk, and such issues have gained wide attention. Simple examples of risk include a malicious compact disc being used as an attack vector,  and the car's onboard microphones being used for eavesdropping.
However, if access is gained to a car's internal controller area network , the danger is much greater  — and in a widely publicized test, hackers remotely carjacked a vehicle from 10 miles away and drove it into a ditch. Manufacturers are reacting in a number of ways, with Tesla in pushing out some security fixes "over the air" into its cars' computer systems. Government and military computer systems are commonly attacked by activists    and foreign powers.
The Internet of things IoT is the network of physical objects such as devices, vehicles, and buildings that are embedded with electronics , software , sensors , and network connectivity that enables them to collect and exchange data.
While the IoT creates opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems,   it also provides opportunities for misuse. In particular, as the Internet of Things spreads widely, cyberattacks are likely to become an increasingly physical rather than simply virtual threat. People could stand to lose much more than their credit card numbers in a world controlled by IoT-enabled devices. Thieves have also used electronic means to circumvent non-Internet-connected hotel door locks.
As IoT devices and appliances gain currency, cyber-kinetic attacks can become pervasive and significantly damaging. Medical devices have either been successfully attacked or had potentially deadly vulnerabilities demonstrated, including both in-hospital diagnostic equipment  and implanted devices including pacemakers  and insulin pumps.
In distributed generation systems, the risk of a cyber attack is real, according to Daily Energy Insider. An attack could cause a loss of power in a large area for a long period of time, and such an attack could have just as severe consequences as a natural disaster.
The District of Columbia is considering creating a Distributed Energy Resources DER Authority within the city, with the goal being for customers to have more insight into their own energy use and giving the local electric utility, Pepco , the chance to better estimate energy demand. The D. Serious financial damage has been caused by security breaches , but because there is no standard model for estimating the cost of an incident, the only data available is that which is made public by the organizations involved.
The reliability of these estimates is often challenged; the underlying methodology is basically anecdotal. However, reasonable estimates of the financial cost of security breaches can actually help organizations make rational investment decisions. According to the classic Gordon-Loeb Model analyzing the optimal investment level in information security, one can conclude that the amount a firm spends to protect information should generally be only a small fraction of the expected loss i.
As with physical security , the motivations for breaches of computer security vary between attackers. Some are thrill-seekers or vandals , some are activists, others are criminals looking for financial gain. Additionally, recent attacker motivations can be traced back to extremist organizations seeking to gain political advantage or disrupt social agendas.
All critical targeted environments are susceptible to compromise and this has led to a series of proactive studies on how to migrate the risk by taking into consideration motivations by these types of actors. Several stark differences exist between the hacker motivation and that of nation state actors seeking to attack based an ideological preference.
A standard part of threat modeling for any particular system is to identify what might motivate an attack on that system, and who might be motivated to breach it. The level and detail of precautions will vary depending on the system to be secured.
A home personal computer , bank , and classified military network face very different threats, even when the underlying technologies in use are similar. In computer security, a countermeasure is an action, device, procedure or technique that reduces a threat , a vulnerability , or an attack by eliminating or preventing it, by minimizing the harm it can cause, or by discovering and reporting it so that corrective action can be taken.
Cyber Security Incident Log - The Cyber Security Incident Log will capture critical information about a Cyber Security Incident and the organizations response to that incident, and should be maintained while the incident is in progress. Report Overview. The circumstances in which a cyber incident arises As an entry point into the systemic cyber risk model, the Context phase conceptualises the starting point of a cyber incident, in the form of a crystallised cyber risk. It can also be used to kill or injure people, steal money, or cause emotional harm. Level 3 Response - Critical Response A Level 3 response is applied to an information security incident when an information asset is suspected of having access to regulated data, as defined by the University of Nebraska Data Classification Standard policy, University of Nebraska policy and state or federal statutes. Reporting of Cyber Incidents. Establishment date, effective date, and revision procedure.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. One reason—perhaps the most important reason—is that cybersecurity is only one of a number of significant public policy issues—and measures taken to improve cybersecurity potentially have negative effects in these other areas. This chapter elaborates on some of the most significant tensions. Economics and cybersecurity are intimately intertwined in the public policy debate in two ways—the scale of economic losses due to adversary operations for cyber exploitation and the effects of economics on the scope and nature of vendor and end-user investments in cybersecurity.
Everyone knows that security is essential in the Digital Age. Regular news reports about high-profile cyberattacks and data breaches leave no doubt that strong security is a must. In one sense, information security dates back to when humans began keeping secrets; in the early days, physical files and documents were kept under literal lock and key.
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Computer security , cybersecurity or information technology security IT security is the protection of computer systems and networks from information disclosure, theft of or damage to their hardware , software , or electronic data , as well as from the disruption or misdirection of the services they provide. The field is becoming increasingly significant due to the increased reliance on computer systems , the Internet  and wireless network standards such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi , and due to the growth of "smart" devices , including smartphones , televisions , and the various devices that constitute the " Internet of things ". Owing to its complexity, both in terms of politics and technology, cybersecurity is also one of the major challenges in the contemporary world. The April session organized by Willis Ware at the Spring Joint Computer Conference , and the later publication of the Ware Report , were foundational moments in the history of the field of computer security. Protecting information systems includes evaluating software, identifying security flaws, and taking steps to correct the flaws, which is a defensive action.
Он отличался громким голосом и безвкусно-крикливой манерой одеваться. Коллеги-криптографы прозвали его Галит - таково научное название каменной соли. Хейл же был уверен, что галит - некий драгоценный камень, поэтому считал, что это прозвище вполне соответствует его выдающимся умственным способностям и прекрасному телосложению. Будь он менее самонадеян, он, конечно же, заглянул бы в энциклопедию и обнаружил, что это не что иное, как солевой осадок, оставшийся после высыхания древних морей. Как и все криптографы АНБ, Хейл зарабатывал огромные деньги, однако вовсе не стремился держать этот факт при .
- Когда мистер Беккер найдет ключ, он будет вознагражден сполна.
Все было бесполезно. До поворота оставалось еще триста метров, а такси от него отделяло всего несколько машин. Беккер понимал, что через несколько секунд его застрелят или собьют, и смотрел вперед, пытаясь найти какую-нибудь лазейку, но шоссе с обеих сторон обрамляли крутые, покрытые гравием склоны. Прозвучал еще один выстрел. Он принял решение.
tion between the concepts of cyber security and information security or the relationship between them. In most literature Cybersecurity strives to ensure the attainment and WMS_The_UK_Cyber_Security_hazarsiiraksamlari.org; Mitnick K.Dunstan C. 30.04.2021 at 16:57
The concept of cybersecurity referred to the protection not only of the Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability (CIA triad) of information resources.