File Name: ethics and integrity in public administration concepts and cases .zip
There are many rules and measures governing the integrity of public administrations. They concern the quality of actions taken by public servants, measured on the basis of fundamental rules and public values. In particular, transparency rules, risk management programs, and codes of conduct for public officials aim to promote accountability, fairness, and discipline in public administrations; others, instead, correspond to limits and sanctions, such as restrictions e.
The branch of knowledge concerned with moral principles The concise Oxford dictionary of current English. Ethics is the basis on which most of the procurement related principles, such as fairness, integrity, and transparency, are based. Professional standards of ethical conduct, no matter what the organization, contain typical characteristics, including commitments to:.
Conduct oneself in such a manner as to maintain trust and confidence in the integrity of the acquisition process. Organizations and professions often seek to address standards of conduct through the adoption of codes of conduct. Professional codes of conduct generally are written in broad conceptual terms rather than in specific situational or descriptive terms.
They leave room for interpretation and often may seem ambiguous. Procurement professionals cannot abide merely by the letter of the law or the specific words in any code, but rather, they are guided by the spirit of the law or the broader concept that the code is intended to express.
One reason why many procuring organizations avoid detailed and specific codes is these may give the impression that anything not prohibited is permitted or that anything not specifically addressed is not important. People in other professions who have not been trained in or are not appreciative of procurement ethics may not realize that a situation not specifically identified in the code may still be vitally important.
Those who do not understand the foundation of a general requirement may not be able to apply a code in a specific situation. No matter how hard policy-makers try, they will never specify in law, code, regulation, rule, or other written requirement everything that a procurement officer needs to know regarding what is allowed or appropriate and what is prohibited or shunned.
It is necessary for procurement officers to understand what the law or rule is intended to accomplish. See Annexes. The respective FRR guiding the procurement process of the UN organizations also address several ethical values such as fairness, integrity, transparency and equal treatment. Spending money that comes from all Member States and a variety of other public sources is a special kind of stewardship with which international procurement officers are entrusted. They must spend UN money only in the way that it is meant to be spent and must not deviate from the procedures to suit their own convenience.
All UN officials are required to display the utmost loyalty to the United Nations, its Charter, rules and regulations over their respective personal preferences and gains. This requirement is straightforward and unbending. However, exercising the high standards of professional responsibility expected of UN staff members is not always easy. It requires UN staff members to exercise clear judgement every day in conforming their professional practices and outside relationships with the spirit and letter of prescribed rules and regulations as well as broader and harder to define ethical standards.
UN procurement officers can face highly competing pressures. The pressure to satisfy the demands for quicker turnarounds, better quality, and lower prices in procurement can compete with the pressure to fulfil their duties with the utmost responsibility and ethical standards. It is therefore the main role of each UN procurement officer to execute their procurement function according to the highest standards of professionalism and in the respect of the values, objectives and interests of the organization.
UN procurement officers are charged with the highest standards of loyalty and discretion. Article , Para. Be able to perform procurement responsibilities effectively and efficiently and still abide by the pertinent rules.
Permitted exceptions to requirements should be kept to a minimum and be fully justified and documented. If a rule or regulation must be reconsidered or changed, the procurement officer should pursue the appropriate process to submit the recommended revision through established channels and include complete documentation to explain and justify the proposed change.
During this process, the existing regulations, rules and procedures must be followed. The procurement officer must perform regulated tasks consistently according to the specified procedures and take a leadership role to help co-workers and stakeholders understand and follow them as well. UN procurement officers are expected to maintain superior standards of integrity and moral values.
Such elementary personal or private qualities as honesty, truthfulness, fidelity, probity and freedom from corrupting influences, are clearly included. For the international official, however, the Charter also requires integrity as a public official, and especially as an international public official.
Perhaps the clearest expression of this is the fact that he has dedicated himself to regulate his conduct with the interests of the international organization only in view. It follows that he must subordinate his private interests and avoid placing himself in a position where those interests would conflict with the interests of the organization he serves.
Cultural differences including nationality, ethnicity, industry or profession, must be set aside. Generic principles of integrity that extend beyond and rise above such differences must be allowed to prevail, especially in connection with the business transactions conducted by UN procurement officers.
Integrity, to a procurement officer in the international marketplace, means believing that the public trust is so important that it cannot be compromised. A procurement officer should therefore demonstrate integrity by:. Demonstrating the values of the UN, including impartiality, fairness, honesty, and truthfulness, in daily activities and behaviours. The report states:. In the context of impartiality and fairness and accordance with the definition above, the procurement officer should:.
For example, if one supplier requests additional information, all suppliers should receive that information at the same time. Or, if one offer is disqualified in the evaluation process and the award placed with the next highest priced offer, the reason for disqualifying the lower offer must be applied to all evaluations uniformly.
Transparency means unimpeded visibility. Because public procurement involves the use of and accountability for public funds, transparency is, perhaps, paramount in all procurement activities. All transactions are subject to scrutiny but not all organizations experience such scrutiny to the degree of the UN. Therefore, procurement officers and assistants must always conduct themselves in such a way that any scrutiny would not damage the UN or its leaders, member organizations, staff, or programmes.
Internal scrutiny is transparency within the UN, such as examination conducted by internal auditors. External scrutiny is transparency outside the UN, such as examination by Member States, the press, external auditors, or other outside observers. It refers to the notion that almost anyone can observe UN activities and watch how the UN conducts its business. Only when something is truly of a confidential nature, such as proprietary data belonging to a supplier, or proposals being evaluated prior to contract award, should confidentiality be given a higher priority over transparency while still maintaining an overall transparent process.
Even though details of pricing data or trade secrets may be held confidential, procurement officers should always assume that how they do their work is available to the public. Confidentiality needs extra consideration in UN procurement, due to the delicate nature of the information that is handled in procurement processes, such as pricing of products, marketing strategies, etc.
A breach in the confidentiality of the data handled in the procurement process could result in discredit of the UN and distrust from governments, partners or suppliers. It states that:. They shall not communicate to any Government, model, person or any other source of information known to them by reason of their official position that they know or ought to have known has not been made public except as appropriate in the normal course of their duties or by authorisation of the Secretary General.
These obligations do not cease upon separation from service. International Civil Servants are responsible for exercising discretion in all matters of official business. They must not divulge confidential information without authorisation. Nor should international civil servants use information that has not been made public and is known to them by virtue of their official position to private advantage. Confidentially might seem in contradiction with transparency, but what this means is, the way the overall procurement process is conducted needs to be clear and transparent, while truly proprietary data needs to remain confidential.
Employee behaviour is judged according to legality and the satisfaction of owners or customers. However, international public-sector procurement officers must adhere to more conservative standards. UN procurement officers must be constantly aware of how their actions appear to outside observers.
Observers may not understand the pressures of their profession. UN procurement officers should always behave in such a way that observers could not misconstrue their actions as improper.
This added dimension of the appearance of impropriety places an extra responsibility on procurement professionals. What people think on observing a UN staff member is not trivial. In an international arena, the damage can be immense and even unthinkable. This appearance must be anticipated in the most conservative terms considering how varied the cultures are of those who observe UN activities. UN staff members in almost all environments are strongly advised to avoid such appearances.
The newspapers are full of stories about people who did not avoid appearances of impropriety. Not all societies have the same standards or traditions about what is proper and what is not. Due diligence in the context of UN procurement refers to carrying out duties carefully and thoroughly and avoiding careless practices or techniques. Due diligence requires that all activities by procurement officers be pursued in a manner that goes beyond the minimum effort.
For example, diligent UN procurement officers should:. A very common risk situation related to ethics in procurement is the risk of a conflict of interest. Conflict of interest can be defined as a direct or mutually exclusive clash between the interest of the UN and the private or personal interest of a UN procurement officer.
Excuse or withdraw from any procurement process where the procurement officer may have a conflicting interest. It is good practice to have officials involved in the procurement process, including those participating in offer opening panels, evaluation committees or contracts committees sign, in advance of their duties, a declaration of no conflict of interest.
Honesty, truthfulness, impartiality, and incorruptibility are to be applied whenever a conflict of interest or the appearance of conflict of interest arises in the course of conducting procurement. A common conflict of interest situation UN procurement officers have to face is whether or not to accept gifts from suppliers, partners or governments.
Offering gifts to customers is a very common practice in the private sector. It is a marketing strategy based on the universal sense of reciprocity: if we receive something, we feel obliged to give something in exchange; i.
Suppliers often offer different types of gifts, for example perishable products, hospitality, free training courses or experiences like exhibitions, fair trades, and sometimes in kind donations, etc. Identifying covert gifts is not always easy, especially when at times, for example, training activities may be seen as beneficial for the organization; however, very careful review of the impact should be taken into account: would receiving the gift benefit one company over the others?
Would acceptance be fair to the competitors? It can be difficult to judge how to behave in a particular situation, and what would be the appropriate action. The table below provides some examples of good practice:. Thank the supplier, but tell them it will be put in a lottery if there is such a policy in your organization where it will be drawn. Not accept any gift from governmental or non governmental sources, but reports them to the designated authorities. While the UN Secretariat has a zero tolerance policy regarding accepting gifts and gratuities, other UN organizations may have their own guidelines in that respect.
UN procurement officers are responsible to know and apply the respective guidelines of their organization. Corruption means the practice of offering, giving, receiving, or soliciting, directly or indirectly anything of value to influence the action of a public official in the competitive selection process or in contract execution. Cheques paid directly to the buyer or members of his family, paid to businesses in which the buyer has an interest. Coercion means harming or threatening to harm, directly or indirectly, persons, or their property to influence their participation in the procurement process, or affect the execution of a contract.
Collusion means a scheme or arrangement between two or more suppliers, with or without knowledge of the UN organisation, designed to establish prices at artificial, non-competitive levels.
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The branch of knowledge concerned with moral principles The concise Oxford dictionary of current English. Ethics is the basis on which most of the procurement related principles, such as fairness, integrity, and transparency, are based. Professional standards of ethical conduct, no matter what the organization, contain typical characteristics, including commitments to:. Conduct oneself in such a manner as to maintain trust and confidence in the integrity of the acquisition process. Organizations and professions often seek to address standards of conduct through the adoption of codes of conduct. Professional codes of conduct generally are written in broad conceptual terms rather than in specific situational or descriptive terms. They leave room for interpretation and often may seem ambiguous.
Ethics and Integrity in Public Administration Concepts and Cases He answers in the affirmative; but he also warns that "[I]f morality emerges from humanity-in.
More than 50 case studies match ethics concepts to real world situations. James Frey's popular memoir stirred controversy and media attention after it was revealed to contain numerous exaggerations and fabrications. After super-lobbyist Jack Abramoff was caught in a scheme to lobby against his own clients, many questioned whether a corrupt individual or a corrupt system was to blame. Is tech company Apple, Inc. Some presidents view their responsibilities in strictly legal terms, others according to duty.
Business Ethics Pdf For example, the U. Finally, the respected Arthur Andersen allowed greed for fees to over-rule the strong business ethics tradition of its founder and caused it to succumb to bending and suspending its professional standards, with fatal results. This document is part of a series of papers intended to introduce practitioners to some concepts, values. Download: QuickStudy - Business Ethics. You can also keep the physical copy of the code of ethics somewhere it can easily be seen, such as in the staff room or the employee lounge.
Ethics are the rules that define moral conduct according to the ideology of a specific group. Moreover, ethics in public administration are important for good business conduct based on the needs of a specific town, state or country. Adhering to a code of ethics can be challenging, but there are courses available in an online MPA program that can help students prepare to work within such parameters. Ethics provide accountability between the public and the administration. Adhering to a code of ethics ensures that the public receives what it needs in a fair manner. It also gives the administration guidelines for integrity in their operations. That integrity, in turn, helps foster the trust of the community.
Choose one or more of the following case studies and lead a discussion which allows students to address and debate issues of integrity, ethics and law. If time allows, let the students vote on which case studies they want to discuss. For lecturers teaching large classes, case studies with multiple parts and different methods of solution lend themselves well to the group size and energy in such an environment.
Не спрашивай меня, как это случилось, - сказал он, уставившись в закрытый люк. - Но у меня такое впечатление, что мы совершенно случайно обнаружили и нейтрализовали Северную Дакоту. - Он покачал головой, словно не веря такую удачу. - Чертовское везение, если говорить честно.
Светлый силуэт двигался по центральному проходу среди моря черных одежд. Он не должен знать, что я. - Халохот улыбнулся. - Может считать себя покойником.