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Meaning And Definition Of Intelligence Pdf

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Much of the excitement among investigators in the field of intelligence derives from their attempts to determine exactly what intelligence is. Different investigators have emphasized different aspects of intelligence in their definitions. Thorndike differed over the definition of intelligence, Terman stressing the ability to think abstractly and Thorndike emphasizing learning and the ability to give good responses to questions.

While intelligence is one of the most talked about subjects in psychology , there is no standard definition of what exactly constitutes intelligence. Some researchers have suggested that intelligence is a single, general ability. Others believe that intelligence encompasses a range of aptitudes, skills, and talents.

Human intelligence

While intelligence is one of the most talked about subjects in psychology , there is no standard definition of what exactly constitutes intelligence. Some researchers have suggested that intelligence is a single, general ability. Others believe that intelligence encompasses a range of aptitudes, skills, and talents. Intelligence has been a controversial topic throughout psychology's history.

Despite the substantial interest in the subject, there is still considerable disagreement about what components makeup intelligence.

In addition to questions of exactly how to define intelligence, the debate continues today about whether accurate measurements are even possible. At various points throughout recent history, researchers have proposed some different definitions of intelligence. While these definitions can vary considerably from one theorist to the next, current conceptualizations tend to suggest that intelligence is the ability to:.

Intelligence involves some different mental abilities including logic, reasoning, problem-solving , and planning. While the subject of intelligence is one of the largest and most heavily researched, it is also one of the topics that generate the greatest controversy.

While psychologists often disagree about the definition and causes of intelligence, research on intelligence plays a significant role in many areas.

These areas include decisions regarding how much funding should be given to educational programs, the use of testing to screen job applicants, and the use of testing to identify children who need additional academic help. The term "intelligence quotient," or IQ, was first coined in the early 20th century by a German psychologist named William Stern. Psychologist Alfred Binet developed the very first intelligence tests to help the French government identify schoolchildren who needed extra academic assistance.

Binet was the first to introduce the concept of mental age or a set of abilities that children of a certain age possess. Since that time, intelligence testing has emerged as a widely used tool that has led to developing many other tests of skill and aptitude. Different researchers have proposed a variety of theories to explain the nature of intelligence. Here are some of the major theories of intelligence that have emerged during the last years.

British psychologist Charles Spearman — described a concept he referred to as general intelligence or the g factor. After using a technique known as factor analysis to examine some mental aptitude tests, Spearman concluded that scores on these tests were remarkably similar.

People who performed well on one cognitive test tended to perform well on other tests, while those who scored badly on one test tended to score badly on others. Psychologist Louis L. Thurstone — offered a differing theory of intelligence. Instead of viewing intelligence as a single, general ability, Thurstone's theory focused on seven different primary mental abilities. One of the more recent ideas to emerge is Howard Gardner 's theory of multiple intelligences. Gardner proposed that the traditional idea of intelligence, based on IQ testing, did not fully and accurately depict a person's abilities.

Psychologist Robert Sternberg defined intelligence as "mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection, and shaping of real-world environments relevant to one's life. While he agreed with Gardner that intelligence is much broader than a single, general ability, he suggested that some of Gardner's types of intelligence are better viewed as individual talents.

In order to gain a deeper understanding of intelligence and the tests developed to measure this concept , it's important to understand the history of intelligence testing, the research that has been conducted, and the findings that have emerged.

To explore these questions, psychologists have conducted a considerable amount of research on the nature, influences, and effects of intelligence. While there has been considerable debate over the exact nature of intelligence, no definitive conceptualization has emerged. Today, psychologists often account for the many theoretical viewpoints when discussing intelligence and acknowledge that this debate is ongoing.

Ever wonder what your personality type means? Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. Jaarsveld S, Lachmann T. Front Psychol. Or slow? On the origins of intelligence as a psychological object. Spearman C. The American Journal of Psychology. Thurstone LL. Primary Mental Abilities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; Gardner H. Basic Books; Sternberg RJ. CUP Archive; Richardson K, Norgate SH.

Appl Dev Sci. Table of Contents View All. Table of Contents. What Is Intelligence? Brief History. Major Questions. Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! Sign Up. What are your concerns? Article Sources.

Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

Related Articles. Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. What Is a Psychological Evaluation? How Emotionally Intelligent Are You? Verywell Mind uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience.

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Theories of Intelligence in Psychology

As in other experimental sciences, investigators build devices in this case, computer programs to carry out their experimental investigations. The multiple intelligence theory is that people possess eight types of intelligence: linguistic, logical, spatial, musical, motor ability, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic intelligence. Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science that attempts to understand the essence of intelligence and produce a new intelligent machine that responds in a manner similar to human intelligence. Artificial intelligence AI , and, in particular, deep learning as a subcategory of AI, provides opportunities for the discovery and development of innovative drugs. The last decade has marked the evolution of artificial intelligence which has been ushered in with tremendous hype and enthusiasm and dentistry is no exception.


The articles in this special issue provide an overview of the wide breadth of questions and methodologies that arise when the research devoted to intelligence intersect with the research devoted to U. The unique contributions of each paper are highlighted and discussed based on their contribution to the literature. The implications of these findings for educational research and policy are briefly discussed.

This chapter reviews major theories of intelligence. The theories are grouped into four major theory types: 1 psychometric theories; 2 cognitive theories; 3 cognitive-contextual theories; and 4 biological theories. Psychometric theories derive from studying individual differences in test performance on cognitive tests. Questions about the structure of human intelligence, including the importance of general intelligence, have dominated the psychometric theories. Cognitive theories derive from studying the processes involved in intelligent performance.

Intelligence in Education

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'intelligence. Send us feedback. Middle English, from Middle French, from Latin intelligentia , from intelligent-, intelligens intelligent.


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Debra R. 03.05.2021 at 08:24

tal a ctivity; aptitude in grasping truths, relationships, facts, meanings, etc.” Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2 “The.

Lucas J. 03.05.2021 at 20:31

PDF | The issue discussed in this paper is the loss of meaning for the The items addressed include the concept of intelligence itself, IQ tests,. the relevance of.

Babanee2018 09.05.2021 at 01:28

There is no agreed-upon definition of the concept of intelligence neither in psychology nor in philosophy.

Noltiristemp 10.05.2021 at 05:31

CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS: Intelligence has been defined in many different ways such as in terms of one's capacity for logic, abstract thought.