File Name: biotechnology and bioprocess engineering .zip
Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, 2nd Edition, outlines the principles of biochemical processes and explains their use in the manufacturing of every day products. The author uses a diirect approach that should be very useful for students in following the concepts and practical applications. This book is unique in having many solved problems, case studies, examples and demonstrations of detailed experiments, with simple design equations and required calculations.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Research activities and the training of bioprocess engineers for the next decade should be broad enough to enable staffing of bioprocess research, development, and manufacturing functions for biotherapeutics and other classes of bioproducts, including intermediate-value products obtained from renewable resources through bioprocessing, value-added agricultural materials, and waste-processing products and services.
This chapter treats elements of bioprocess engineering that must be addressed to meet the needs of industry and the goal of commercializing biotechnology.
The principles, culture, and techniques of scientists biologists and chemists are often different from those of bioprocess engineers. The differences can place unnecessary limits on collaboration among members of a bioprocessing-development team and thereby delay engineering considerations to the later stages of bioprocess development. Hence, it is important that the bioprocess engineers' training in the next decade have a strong background in biochemistry, molecular biology, cell biology, and genetics.
That will facilitate useful communication of bioprocess engineers with the bench scientists who are at the initial discovery stage of biological-product research and development.
The situation can be thought of as analogous to process development in the chemical and petrochemical industries, where engineers who are knowledgeable in basic concepts in organic and physical chemistry have fostered innovations in processes developed through interactions of research chemists and engineers. Future research and training in the appli-. Bioprocess engineering is a broad engineering field, in that it covers all the physical sciences and biological sciences.
It is impossible to design and engineer bioprocesses within a single discipline. Formal coursework in other disciplines will begin to build the foundation for team research through cross-disciplinary interactions. However, coursework alone will not be sufficient for executing and implementing the actual research and development. The hands-on experience of team research must be part of bioprocess engineers' training program. It is therefore recommended that cross-disciplinary research be part of the training of the bioprocess engineer; it is probably best practiced at the postgraduate level.
There is much to be gained through input from different disciplines when such team research is executed. However, to implement this type of research, cultural changes in the engineering and scientific communities will be required. For example, a doctoral candidate in chemical engineering is often viewed as performing research as a single investigator when, in fact, input from multiple disciplines is essential.
Several government-agency programs foster cross-disciplinary and interdisciplinary training. It is recommended that the programs continue to foster activities through cross-disciplinary interactions. The education of leaders who are strong in science, engineering, business, and management skills is difficult. But the bioprocess engineer's education at the predoctoral level usually devotes little time to the management and business aspects of biotechnology.
A training program must reflect the realities of the bioprocess industrial sectors. It is recommended that future programs incorporate the industry-university interface into formal training activities. Continuing education is especially critical for bioprocess engineering, because of the rapidity of advances in the biological sciences. Such a program should be created by industry, universities, and government in a cooperative fashion.
Biochemical engineers are and should be the lead engineers in bioprocess development. They are educated uniquely to span the gap between the biological sciences and process engineering. However, the efforts of these engineers must also be integrated with those of equipment engineers, as well as bioscientists.
Integration of biochemical and equipment engineering is often absent in current bioprocess engineering practice.
The equipment that is used by the bioprocess engineer evolves slowly; there are few radical breakthroughs. That is probably because the most active parts of the industry are new and relatively small, and their progress has been driven by new ventures attempting to inject new technology into bioprocessing.
Attempts by small, startup bioprocess equipment companies are often underfunded, and many fail. In contrast, the well-established manufacturers of bioprocess equipment spend little on research and development relative to other high-technology industries. Systems and equipment engineering, comparable with that in the aircraft, electronics, and defense industries, must be used by the U. To that end, more engineers should be trained who are seriously interested in improving bioprocess equipment, such as chromatography systems, centrifuges, membrane filters, bioreactors, and especially on-line instrumentation for monitoring and control.
Their undergraduate education can be in the traditional fields of instrumentation and electrical and mechanical engineering, with a few basic courses in chemical engineering. At the graduate level, education should be structured jointly with programs in bioprocess engineering. As the biotechnology industry matures and manufacturing costs become important, the equipment engineer will assume a larger role than today.
And, if biomass substantially replaces fossil fuel as a primary source of energy and materials, equipment technology will become critical. Industry and government should encourage the education of more equipment engineers for the bioproducts industry. Bioprocess-engineering manpower demand will continue to increase in research and development, manufacturing, biotechnology-related business.
Specialized training with a focus on specialties will be required. Specialties in the biopharmaceutical arena are. Similarly, bioprocessing of renewable resources and environmental bioprocess engineering requires.
Bioseparation and purification of fermentation products or products derived through microbial activity. Future training and educational programs must be much more concentrated and focus on selected subspecialties to address anticipated staffing needs in the pharmaceutical industry, medical industry, food and agriculture, environmental biotechnology-related industry, chemical industry, and energy industry.
A unique element in the education of some bioprocess engineers is hands-on experience in applied microbiology and molecular biology, bioreactor operation, cell culture, bioseparation chromatography, membranes, and centrifugation , and basic analytical methods for biological materials and molecules. Such training in the context of an upper-level, undergraduate bioprocess-engineering laboratory constitutes an invaluable first experience in merging theory with experiment for biological systems.
It is already being provided to some extent in a few universities. The committee recommends that competitive-grant programs be further developed to upgrade teaching laboratories for bioprocess engineering so that they can provide a high-quality training experience for a larger number of students.
Bioprocessing research needs differ between the biopharmaceutical, renewable-resources, and environmental sectors of the biotechnology industry. The biopharmaceutical sector currently has the strongest basis and. Key research needs in generic applied research are in fundamental studies on and development of.
Methods for rapid characterization of biochemical properties, efficacy, and immunogenicity of protein pharmaceuticals. High-resolution protein-purification technologies that are economically feasible, are readily scaled up, and have minimal waste-disposal requirements. Other research needs are related to expanding the range of pharmaceuticals that can be produced by prokaryotic cells, further developing the technology for stable liquid formulations and for sustained release of protein pharmaceuticals, and increasing knowledge of chemical and biochemical reactions that modify proteins during production and storage.
The latter subjects are perceived to be potentially parts of the research mission of NIH, because they involve health issues.
The key bioprocess-engineering issues are consistent with the continuing programs of NSF, although sustained increases in resources will be needed to fund strong programs. The processing of renewable resources and manufacture of value-added products from agricultural commodities require bioprocess-engineering research to address fundamental understanding and development of.
Cellulose pretreatment and saccharification systems to convert ligno-cellulosic materials, as well as coproducts of corn processing, into appropriately priced fermentable sugars and value-added materials. Microorganisms and fermentations capable of converting pentoses to value-added products at rates and yields comparable with those obtained for glucose by yeast.
Separation systems, amenable to large-scale use, for recovering and purifying bioproducts from dilute aqueous solutions.
Engineering and manipulating cellular pathways for enhanced production of microbial metabolites, or microbial synthesis, of new products. Those research needs can be addressed within the framework of bioprocessing research initiatives of NSF, the U. Another engineering-research need is in the development of large-scale surface culture as might be encountered in biopulping.
Other fundamental research needs are to increase the knowledge base of biochemical and microbial transformations that result in value-added nonfood products from starch and cellulose. A recent example is the genetic engineering of E.
Research to improve methods of adding value to corn wet-milling products is also needed. Those subjects all fit within the missions of USDA initiatives to carry out applied generic research in biotechnology to add value to agricultural products and DOE programs in deriving fuels and chemicals from biomass. A sustained research effort will be required if successful process concepts are to be developed in the coming 5—10 years.
Environmental applications of bioprocessing are perhaps the furthest off and need fundamental research, particularly in. Definition and implementation of engineering standards by which bioremediation protocols and processes could be gauged. The research needs in bioremediation are subject to a number of complex technical and regulatory issues, as described in the OTA report OTA, Concerted efforts will be particularly important as the regulatory environment for biotechnology products improves and the regulatory process is streamlined.
The federal support of fundamental research in bioprocess engineering is essential, and a major increase in federal support is strongly recommended. The research goals and approaches of industry are different from those of universities.
Industrial research is mission-oriented, and its emphasis is on applied research that leads to products and more efficient process technologies; the purpose of university research is to enlarge the generic and fundamental knowledge base relevant to bioprocess engineering. Consequently, federal support is a critical element of success. The committee agrees with the directions that are set, but feels strongly that more will be needed over the next 10 years.
Bioprocess technology is the basis on which the products of life-science research are translated to a manufacturing environment. It is critical for bringing the industry to the profitability that will return taxes and create jobs in all sectors of our economy. Table 5. Technology transfer in biotechnology and bioprocess engineering can include dissemination of published scientific and technical literature related to biotechnology, movement of scientists and engineers between employers, training of scientists and engineers in bioprocessing technology, construction of plants to manufacture biotechnology products, joint ventures of biotechnology businesses, licensing of biotechnology products and bioprocesses, exchange of manufacturing technology, release of technical information with the sale of bioprocessing equipment, technical consulting, transfer of engineering proposals, and transfer of technical information through trade exhibits.
Although there is a need for university, industry, and government research organizations to be interdependent in their research and development endeavors, effective communication and technology transfer are mutually beneficial and critically important to the national economic security. The federal government is emphasizing the need to increase cooperative activities between national laboratories, industry, and universities with emphasis on technology transfer. The committee encourages continued development of this type of interaction.
The important issues that are relevant to biotechnology transfer and should be focused on are the effectiveness of U. The United States seems to have a very effective university-industry technology-transfer process, compared with other technologically advanced countries. The effectiveness of technology transfer from the U.
Forms of technology transfer from the universities include employment of graduates, professional meetings, dissemination of scientific and technical publications, consulting arrangements, contract research for industry, collaborative research agreements, and training of industrial personnel.
Thus, universities make their research available to industry by many means. It appears that, in biological science, industry carefully studies the university output and exploits it effectively.
In contrast, the U. Some of the industries involved are very conservative about changing processes and, in general, U. In the bioprocessing industry, many manufacturing-process innovations are developed by small companies. New chromatographic techniques, new bioreactors, new membrane filtration—all come from small to medium companies. The large users of the technology—pharmaceutical, food, and chemical companies—seem to have less of a role in innovations that lead to new manufacturing processes.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Research activities and the training of bioprocess engineers for the next decade should be broad enough to enable staffing of bioprocess research, development, and manufacturing functions for biotherapeutics and other classes of bioproducts, including intermediate-value products obtained from renewable resources through bioprocessing, value-added agricultural materials, and waste-processing products and services. This chapter treats elements of bioprocess engineering that must be addressed to meet the needs of industry and the goal of commercializing biotechnology. The principles, culture, and techniques of scientists biologists and chemists are often different from those of bioprocess engineers.
The Role of Bioprocess Engineering in Biotechnology. Author: Michael Ladisch. Bioprocess engineering is the discipline that puts biotechnology to work. Biotechnology involves using organisms, tissues, cells, or their molecular components 1 to act on living things and 2 to intervene in the workings of cells or the molecular components of cells, including their genetic material NRC, Biotechnology evolved as a means of producing food, beverages, and medicines. More than 8, years ago, it was used to make leavened bread. Some 5, years ago, moldy soybean curd was used to treat skin infections in China.
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering is an international bimonthly journal published by the Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. BBE is.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Bioprocess engineering is concerned with translating biological science into biologically based manufacturing. To be prepared for the biological manufacturing systems of the future, it is important to identify the fields of science and technology that have reached or will soon reach early prototypes and to begin to develop engineering systems to deal with them. The lead time in development of any new technology is long.
The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering is an international bimonthly journal published by the Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering. BBE is devoted to the advancement in science and technology in the wide area of biotechnology, bioengineering, and bio medical engineering. This includes but is not limited to applied molecular and cell biology, engineered biocatalysis and biotransformation, metabolic engineering and systems biology, bioseparation and bioprocess engineering, cell culture technology, environmental and food biotechnology, pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics, biomaterials engineering, nanobiotechnology, and biosensor and bioelectronics.
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The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering.Duarte E. 04.05.2021 at 09:30
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