File Name: the book of thousand nights and one night .zip
Upstairs, Henry Chandler looked at his wife in exasperation.
It is often known in English as the Arabian Nights, from the first English language edition , which rendered the title as The Arabian Nights' Entertainment. The work was collected over many centuries by various authors, translators, and scholars across West, Central, and South Asia and North Africa. The tales themselves trace their roots back to ancient and medieval Arabic, Persian, Mesopotamian, Indian, and Egyptian folklore and literature. In particular, many tales were originally folk stories from the Caliphate era, while others, especially the frame story, are most probably drawn from the Pahlavi Persian work Hazar Afsan which in turn relied partly on Indian elements.
The spread of "narratives of sexual danger" Walkowitz which were taking place in the last two decades of the century destabilized the main tenets of the Victorian puritanical code and caused several social and legislative changes.
As a sort of reactionary wave to this liberalization of the discourses on sexuality, several social movements were founded in the s, with a view to imposing a regime of moral restrictiveness on British society. Stead's Pall Mall Gazette, which was the leading organ of the purity movement. It was formed to organize an aggressive campaign to suppress erotic literature and enforce a moral restraint based on prohibitions on sexual behaviour 2.
In addition to this, the Contagious Diseases Campaign, a movement led by Josephine Butler, obtained the repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts in , and respectively which had aimed at regulating the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. According to the Acts, all female prostitutes had to register with the police and submit to a monthly medical examination to verify whether or not they had contracted syphilis or gonorrhoea. Those infected were confined and incarcerated in Lock Hospitals with other venereal victims.
Silvia Antosa Richard Burton's Translation of The Book of a Thousand Nights and a Night : Mis Representation and Sexual Contamination 1 as a prostitute, she was compelled to undergo this exam even if she got married; thus, the stigma of the fallen woman would be attached to her for the rest of her life.
This system absolved men from any responsibility in the transmission of the disease, thereby reinforcing the Victorian sexual double standard. This legislation was successfully opposed by Josephine Butler for two main reasons: it reinforced the Victorian sexual double standard by absolving men from any responsibility both for transmitting venereal diseases and for committing illegal sexual activities, as well as for favouring the general opinion that prostitutes were a source of both physical and moral pollution.
In the same year, another important law was passed: the Criminal Law Amendment Act, which was meant to "make further provision for the protection of women and girls, the suppression of brothels, and other purposes". The main aim of the law was to raise the age of sexual consent for females from thirteen to sixteen, in response to a number of campaigns which had taken hold in the preceding years against the growing phenomenon of the illegal market in young girls and the expansion of child prostitution 3.
However, among its "other purposes", the law had the declared intent of condemning male homosexual acts. Since the law did not give any specific definition of what was meant by "gross indecency", this latter came to be widely interpreted as referring to any male homosexual behavior.
Persecutions against male homosexuals 3 In the s the age of female consent was twelve years, but campaigners such as Josephine Butler and Barbara Bodichon complained that young girls were being sold to brothels for prostitution and harshly opposed the existing law.
In , the House of Commons agreed to raise the age of consent to thirteen, but still campaigners fought for further reform. Any male person who, in public or private, commits, or is a party to the commission of or procures or attempts to procure the commission by any male person of, any act of gross indecency with another male person, shall be guilty of a misdemeanour, and being convicted thereof shall be liable at the discretion of the court to be imprisoned for any term not exceeding two years, with or without hard labour", Paterson and Macmorran As Louis Crompton notes, "During the period , when the annual number of executions for all crimes dropped from about seventy to thirty, sodomy was the only crime for which the number of hangings remained more or less constant" Crompton By , the extension of the persecution and surveillance of male same-sex acts even to private spaces was another, tangible sign of the repressive climate which was by now reaching its peak.
However, the process of destabilizing and redefining the orthodoxy of Victorian sexuality at the end of the nineteenth century was also strongly influenced by contact with other cultural paradigms. In the s, the British Empire reached its zenith. Queen Victoria had become the Empress of India in and her coronation marked the primacy of England over all the other nations in the world 5.
With the conquest of India, the British program of colonial expansion seemed to have reached its highest point. It was during these decades that the number of British travellers and explorers increased enormously throughout the Empire. They did not only travel for economic, cultural or adventurous purposes. The reasons for their journeys were far more complex and cannot easily be subsumed under the self vs.
The contact with "other" cultural paradigms inevitably caused a redefinition of the British consciousness. Rather than seeking to appropriate and control the Oriental Other from a political, economic, cultural and -as shall be seen -sexual point of view, British colonisers were undergoing a process of hybridization. In other words, the British approach to colonised cultures could not help taking into account the existence of multiple voices and of countless 5 On the importance of the iconic, symbolic and charismatic power of Queen Victoria and her vital influence in the development of the national and the colonial history of England, see Marroni Said himself has adopted a more nuanced approach to the influence of orientalism in his recent work [Culture and Imperialism, nda], even as others have begun to probe its multiple uses both by European colonizers and by those they colonized" Kennedy As a consequence, rather than emphasising the opposition between self and other, it is important to take account of the manifold expressions of colonialism itself, which is made up by different spaces of interaction and reciprocal moulding between colonisers and colonised.
These hybrid spaces end up constituting what Homi Bhabha defined as the "interstitial passage between fixed identifications [that] opens up the possibility of a cultural hybridity that entertains difference without an assumed or imposed hierarchy" Bhabha 4.
Burton was later engaged by the Royal Geographical Society to explore the east coast of Africa, and led an expedition which discovered Lake Tanganyika. Thanks to this and other journeys of exploration in Africa, he acquired a reputation as one of the leading explorers of his generation, even though a public disagreement with his partner, John Speke, over the source of the Nile, ended his career as an explorer.
He was awarded a knighthood by Queen Victoria in , and spent the rest of his life in the consular service, moving from Damascus to Trieste. It is precisely in these last years of apparent inactivity that Burton produced most of his narrative works, which consisted mainly of translations of non-Western erotic works, including Indian and Arabic manuals on lovemaking, such as The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana , The Perfumed Garden of the Cheikh Nefzaoui , and the Ananga Ranga Stage of the Bodiless One ; or, The Hindu Art of Love Most of them had never been printed in unabridged version in England.
From his earliest travel accounts, Burton shows an ambivalent attitude towards the imperialist stance he seemingly embodies as a member of the British army, as an explorer of the British Geographical Association and, later, as a British consul abroad.
In a sense, he positions himself simultaneously within and outside the imperial ideology, by engaging with the multiple contradictions of imperial subjectivity. Even though the dynamics of imperial discourse structure his literary production, he regards them as multivocal and heterogeneous and, as such, open to remoulding and redefinition without the assumption of a single, superior perspective.
In his writings, he aims at depicting the axiological instability that is intrinsic both in British self-representation and in the cultural depiction of the Other, unveiling the underlying troubling issues that the Orientalist question poses to Western subjectivities. In his descriptions of African lands and Muslims cultures, for example, Burton seems to experience a number of encounters by embracing "a 'contact' perspective" which, as famously defined by Mary Louis Pratt, "emphasizes how subjects are constituted in and by their relations to each other.
It treats the relations among colonizers and colonized, or travellers and 'travelees', not in terms of separateness or apartheid, but in terms of copresence, interaction, interlocking understandings and practices, often within radically asymmetrical relations of power" Pratt 7.
In cross-dressing, learning local languages and disguising himself in different Oriental identiplaces him firmly in the ultramasculine realm.
We can also note by examining the map of Burton's travels that his career trajectory coincided with the imperializing mission of the British Empire" Hoeveler and Cass Rather, he embraces a cultural and ontological perspective that allows him to perceive himself as an insider, thus overcoming the dichotomy self vs other in order to create a new form of encounter.
Burton experiences "queer encounters" that do not only contribute to his perception of the Other in a new light, but also problematize his status as Westerner, that he constantly negotiates. In a sense, it could be said that Burton lived his existence by willingly assuming a "nomadic consciousness" that, according to Rosi Braidotti, "consists in not taking any kind of identity as permanent.
The nomad has no passport -or has too many of them" Braidotti This process of problematization of Western identity and, more generally, of Western discourses, is further developed by Burton in his translations of Oriental erotic works, where he traces imaginary terrains in which new forms of sexuality are constructed.
He outlines real and metaphoric sexual geographies that he draws from his autobiographical experience as an explorer and from his knowledge of Oriental languages and traditions. In his sexual geographies, he develops a sort of "contaminated", or hybrid approach to the issue of sexuality which opposed and, ultimately, subverted the main tenets of the Victorian moral system, even though, as discussed below, he apparently follows an Orientalist approach in concealing Eastern sexuality from Western morality.
It was the first time that the Nights were translat Like his previous translations, it was privately printed for the fictive imprint Kama Shastra Society of London, though Waterlow and Sons were the publishers. Benares was the purported place of publication, though the actual printing occurred in Stoke Newington.
However, unlike his previous translations, The Nights were not published anonymously. The strategies Burton adopted in publishing and circulating his erotic translations were similar to the printing stratagems utilised by the anonymous authors and editors of the pornographic literature of the time.
For further information and references on the market strategies adopted for pornographic literature, see Marcus In the translator's foreword, Burton satirizes them, by depicting them as spokesmen of a more general "Nineteenth Century refinement": Subtle corruption and covert licentiousness are utterly absent; we find more real 'vice' in many a short French roman, […] and in not a few English novels of our day than in the thousands of pages of the Arab.
Here we have nothing of that most immodest modern modesty which sees covert implication where nothing is implied, and 'improper' allusion when propriety is not outraged; nor do we meet with the Nineteenth Century refinement; innocence of the word not of the thought; morality of the tongue not of the heart, and the sincere homage paid to virtue in guise of perfect hypocrisy.
Burton , vol. As mentioned at the beginning of this article, this debate was especially lively in the s, partly in response to the diffusion of New Woman fiction and to a number of literary works that increasingly dealt with this subject His critical stance towards the widespread moral restrictiveness which was advocated by many reactionary thinkers, mainly in reference to the increasing presence of sex and sexual liberation in literature, is not however limited to his decision to publish the full-length translation of the Arabian Nights, which he enriched with a bulk of explanatory notes.
He develops a further groundbreaking argument in the "Terminal Essay on Pederasty", which was appended to the tenth volume of the translation, which eventually swelled to sixteen volumes in its final version.
In this essay, Burton traces a Sotadic Zone in which pederasty was widespread. Pederasty refers but not only to intergenerational sex between men As he makes clear at the outset of the essay, this area derives its name from Sotades, a Greek poet whose verse dealt with homosexual themes. In outlining an explicit homosexualized geography, Burton was among the first pioneers to deal explicitly not only with sexuality but, in particular, with the binary opposition between hetero-and homo-sexuality.
Before him, only a few writers had dealt with the subject. However, neither essay was published until the twentieth century. A major article on Greek and Roman pederasty written by M. Meier was published in the Ersch and Gruber encyclopedia in Furthermore, another German author, Carl Heinrich Ulrichs, wrote a series of pamphlets on homosexuality from onwards.
But these works, with the exception of the entry by Meier in the Ersch and Gruber encyclopedia, circulated only among very narrow literary circles in England. One of the most innovative aspects of Burton's intervention in the contemporary public debate on sexuality is the fact that his translation, and in particular the final essay attached to it, was meant to be widely circulated and reach the largest possible number of people.
Furthermore, Burton's analysis of male homosexuality put him in contact with eminent sexologists of his age, such as Havelock Ellis, John Addington Symonds and Edward Carpenter. Unlike him, these latter were to develop within a few years a more rational, biomedical discourse on the subject of male homosexuality that differed enormously from his own more hybridized perspective A case in point is his Plain and Literal Translation of the Arabian Nights' Entertainments, now Entitled the Book of a Thousand Nights and a NightIn explaining his motivation for the project of the Nights, Burton remarks that the act of translating helps him evade the daily dullness of his consular work Burton , Vol.
In this way, he seems to accomplish an orientalist escapist fantasy according to which reading and translating oriental tales opens up a mental space of erotic evasion, in sharp contrast to the rational space of the Western world Kennedy Soon after pointing out that his translation is a natural outcome of his Pilgrimage to Al-Medinah and Meccah, Burton highlights the real reasons for his project, which originates mainly from his bitter acknowledgement of his professional failure Burton , Vol.
As Dane Kennedy aptly notes: "By drawing this connection between his career and the Nights, Burton makes it clear that he regards his translation as an oblique commentary on his own society" Kennedy The oriental world of the Nights seems to give him the discursive space in which he can freely participate in the contemporary debate on the subject of sexuality without any form of editorial censorship or moral restraint.
The same connection between personal experience and subject matter can be found at the beginning of his "Terminal Essay on Pederasty". Burton refers to an episode which happened to him when he was in India. Disguised as a travelling merchant, Burton compiled a detailed but extremely scandalous report concerning the sexual habits of British soldiers.
The disclosure of his report to Government House eventually caused his dismissal from the service Burton , vol. Far from being episodic narration, the event recounted by Burton raises at least two questions. The first one is that the episode refers to a process of "contamination" of the British.
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Here, we encounter tales of epic warriors, buried treasure, disappearing brides, cannibal demon-women, fatal shipwrecks, and clever ruses, where human strength and ingenuity play out against a backdrop of inexorable, inscrutable fate. Distinctly rooted in Arabic literary culture and the Islamic tradition, these tales draw on motifs and story elements that circulated across cultures, including Indian and Chinese antecedents, and features a frame story possibly older than its more famous sibling. Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide. Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves. Built on the Johns Hopkins University Campus.
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Language Editing Service. The overall structure of the folktale narrative depends on the tales she recounts to King Shahriyar, and it is through these tales that she finally is able to change his mind. The richness of the narrative qualities, properties, and techniques in The Thousand and One Nights has attracted narrative scholars and narratologists for a long time. Narrativity generally refers to the qualities and features that cause a narrative to be accepted or evaluated as a prototype narrative. Bal, Mieke.
The Arabian Nights is a collection of tales from the Islamic Golden Age, compiled by various authors over many hundreds of years. Though each collection features different stories, they are all centered around the frame story of the sultan Shahrayar and his wife, Scheherazade. After finding out that his first wife is unfaithful, Shahrayar kills her and swears to marry a different woman each night before killing her the following morning to prevent further betrayal. Scheherazade, his vizier's daughter, concocts a plan to end this pattern. She marries Shahrayar, and then begins to tell him a story that night. However, she stops the story in the middle, so that he will be excited to hear the rest the following night. The next evening, she finishes that story and then begins another, following the same pattern for 1, nights, until Shahrayar has a change of heart.
National literatures of Arab States. It is often known in English as the Arabian Nights , from the first English-language edition c. The work was collected over many centuries by various authors, translators, and scholars across West, Central and South Asia, and North Africa. Some tales themselves trace their roots back to ancient and medieval Arabic , Egyptian , Indian , Persian , and Mesopotamian  folklore and literature. A Thousand Tales , which in turn relied partly on Indian elements. The stories proceed from this original tale; some are framed within other tales, while others are self-contained.
Я обошел программу Сквозь строй, - простонал коммандер. - Но вы же не знали. Стратмор стукнул кулаком по столу. - Я должен был знать. Да взять хотя бы его электронное имя. - Боже мой, Северная Дакота.
Мидж хотела возразить, но прикусила язык. И прижала ладонь к горлу. - В шифровалке вырубилось электричество. Фонтейн поднял глаза, явно удивленный этим сообщением. Мидж подтвердила свои слова коротким кивком. - У них нет света.
Правильно ли она поняла. Все сказанное было вполне в духе Грега Хейла.
Я возьму это на себя, - улыбнулась она, вставая. - Буду у своего терминала. - Как ты думаешь, сколько времени это займет. - Ну… - задумалась Сьюзан.
Неужели Большой Брат следит за тем, что делается в кладовке. Большой Брат, или Брат, как его обычно называла Мидж, - это аппарат Сентрекс-333, размещавшийся в крохотном, похожем на подсобку кабинетике рядом с директорскими апартаментами. Большой Брат был частью мира, в котором царила Мидж.
Viste el anillo? - настаивал обладатель жуткого голоса. Двухцветный утвердительно кивнул, убежденный, что честность - лучшая политика. Разумеется, это оказалось ошибкой. В следующую секунду, со сломанными шейными позвонками, он сполз на пол.
Note. For this revised edition of The Book of the Thousand Nights and. One Night all names of persons and places and all Arabic words retained in the text have.Fanette D. 10.06.2021 at 09:42
How to publish with Brill.Roch R. 11.06.2021 at 23:56
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