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Jewish Commentaries On The Book Of Psalms Pdf

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Psalm 23 In Hebrew Pdf. Print this page or download a PDF chord sheet.

Hebrew Studies

The Psalms play numerous roles in the religious life of the Jews, but occupy an ambivalent place in the Jewish curriculum. Jewish commentary on the Psalms occurred in four phases: inner-biblical indications of developing interpretive strategies, rabbinic commentaries, standard medieval commentaries, and late medieval and early modern commentaries 14th—18th centuries.

This article presents case studies to highlight trends in Jewish commentary based on the abovementioned phases, along with reference to relevant scholarship. It looks at two aspects of the book: the attribution of authorship to King David and the selection and ordering of the psalms into the canonical collection of It also considers Leviticus Rabba In addition, it discusses commentaries by two of the three most influential Torah commentators of the medieval Golden Age: Rashi and Ibn Ezra.

The pre-Enlightenment resources available for traditional Jewish study of the psalms may be sorted chronologically into four categories:. The history of Jewish psalms interpretation begins within the Book of Psalms itself, particularly in two aspects of the book: the attribution of authorship to King David Cooper and the selection and ordering of the psalms into the canonical collection of The claim of authorship is based initially on the superscriptions that mention David by name seventy-three of them in the Hebrew Bible and about a dozen more in the Septuagint , leading ultimately to the rabbinic declaration that David wrote all of the psalms with or without superscriptions, even when authorship seems to be ascribed to others.

The meaning of al yedei is unclear, leaving an opening for later commentators to argue for multiple authors: Did David write all of the psalms or assemble a collection that includes compositions of others along with his own? Although the text is of dubious historical value, it evinces awareness that the psalms were culled from a much larger corpus of texts. The specifics remain obscure except for one salient fact: The Qumran manuscripts show that the contents and order of the book—especially of Psalms 90——were still in flux between c.

The Book of Psalms therefore owes its final form to the same period that saw the appearance of the earliest extant Psalms interpretations, namely the expository texts from Qumran and the citations of Psalms in the New Testament.

The earliest interpretations may suggest that the compilers of the book in its final form intended it to be read as a collection of eschatological prophecies Mitchell The psalms collectively catalogue the vicissitudes that the hero and his followers encounter on their way to their final victory. They await their vindication in the final judgment Horgan : — As prominent as eschatological interpretation seems to have been around the turn of the eras, it was only one of many roads taken by later interpreters.

The malleable Davidic persona is discernible in three types of Jewish commentary Cooper : As Saadia writes in his defense of Davidic authorship and inspiration:. As a result, you will find several of its headings p. Sokolow : The third pericope of Midrash Tehillim on the psalm Buber : i. Other sections of the midrash take up broader application of the psalm with little or no reference to the details of the story. After some digression, the midrash asserts that according to the Proverbs verse:.

When God executes judgment on the righteous, it is a joy to them because God cleanses them of their transgressions. By way of contrast, Ibn Ezra devotes scant attention to historical matters, using his commentary on Psalm to dismiss the notion of any discernible sequence in the psalms. Many are those who attack me: Shimei ben Gera and his aides.

Your blessing be upon Your people, and therefore I am praying for your people that they not die in battle. The immediately preceding paragraph reflects a characteristic form of Jewish engagement with Scripture. Cite a verse, identify a problem of interpretation, and consult the traditional commentaries for their solutions.

The process is more important than the outcome, since its purpose is not to yield a definitive conclusion but to engender further study and reflection. While the psalms play a variety of roles in Jewish religious life, they occupy an ambivalent place in the Jewish curriculum. Confident statements about their use in both communal and private settings, especially in antiquity, are fraught with problems and often founder for lack of clear evidence.

One cannot assume, for example, that the relatively many Psalms manuscripts discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls roughly forty of them were prepared for liturgical use, although there are indications of both antiphonal recitation and of the recombination of psalms verses into new liturgical compositions, commonplace in later Jewish liturgies. The situation of the ancient synagogue likely paralleled that of Qumran. For the most part, psalms were incorporated into the public liturgies only gradually during the Gaonic period 6th to 11th centuries ce and thereafter Brody , clustering in certain portions of the service never the main part , less than a third of them in recurrent use.

Just as it is uncertain what role the psalms played in early synagogue liturgy, it also is unclear how Jews studied them, whether privately, in the synagogue, or in the academy. Early Christian schools, especially monastic schools, introduced young initiates to the study of Scripture through the psalms and selected New Testament texts.

Once admitted to the monastery, the neophyte had to commit psalms to memory and recite them while performing his daily chores. There are similar prescriptions and regimens in Jewish literature, but they are much later and possibly influenced by Christian monasticism. There is no evidence for comparable Jewish use of psalms in the early rabbinic academy.

While the Aramaic Targums of the Torah most likely were composed to facilitate comprehension of the text in the context of worship, one can advance no such claim for the Targum to Psalms. The Targum, usually dated to about the fifth century ce and possibly composed by the translator of other books of the Hagiographa, evinces simplifying and dramatizing tendencies, modest midrashic expansion, and a lack of polemic, all of which might indicate pedagogical intent, but that is hardly certain Komlosh p.

Like all of the compilatory midrashim, Midrash Tehillim probably took shape gradually over time, so its date and social setting cannot be ascertained with confidence. In the Jewish curricula of the medieval period, the Psalms fell into the same desuetude as the rest of the Bible, perhaps more so. Since citations from the Psalms do not abound in the legal discourse that is at the heart of the traditional curriculum, however, there would be little occasion to study the Psalms in depth.

These sections are marked identically in all the best manuscripts and could have been intended to demarcate divisions for structured public or private readings Offer : — In later sources there are many texts that prescribe beneficial regimens of psalms recitation, which generally do not call for close reading or careful study Hashlag passim; Buxbaum : — The vast number of citations from psalms in midrashic homilies suggests that the most likely setting for the rabbinic use of psalms was public preaching.

In a story about Ben Azzai recounted in Leviticus Rabba As a result, even setting aside Midrash Tehillim , hardly a verse of Psalms goes without comment in the rabbinic corpus. A brilliant midrash incorporating commentary on Psalm 27 is Leviticus Rabba The starting point of the midrash is Leviticus The midrash thus actualizes the rabbinic dictum that everything in the Book of Psalms applies to David, to all Israel, and to all times.

The story of David and Goliath, for example, is concretized in the psalm through intertextual allusions and glosses that establish the connection between the seemingly disparate texts:. Samuel b. Nahman expounded the text as applying to the Philistines.

The concluding scene of the midrash vividly depicts the Day of Judgment. Two of the three most influential Torah commentators of the medieval Golden Age—Rashi Grossman : —46 and Ibn Ezra Simon : —87 —also produced commentaries on Psalms. Their commentaries provide the starting point for traditional study.

For Arabic-speaking Jews, the greatest importance was attached to the Arabic translation and commentary of Saadia Gaon. He summarizes two diametrically opposed views: first that the psalms are all Davidic prophecies and second that they are neither prophetic nor necessarily Davidic, being songs and prayers of various dates.

Ibn Ezra concludes with his own view, which mediates between the two extreme positions. The first has long been known to be that of Saadia. The attribution of the second, however, remained uncertain until the discovery of an alternative recension of the introduction, three times longer than the standard one. In this recension, the author of the second opinion is identified as Moses ha-kohen ibn Giqatila, an eleventh-century poet, grammarian, and exegete whose work is known mainly from citations in the writings of others.

The book has rightly been regarded essential reading since its first appearance; it opens a window to the world of medieval Jewish Psalms exegesis that present-day students of the Bible can ignore only to their detriment. The third phase of premodern commentary is the most difficult to present because of its extraordinary diversity. Predominantly eclectic and homiletical, it tends to be prolix, preoccupied with novelty, and only intermittently rewarding for the modern reader.

Nevertheless, there are treasures to be unearthed in this neglected corpus. But what, exactly, do these two entail? What is one supposed to learn from the soundless words of the passage of time vv.

Ibn Shuaib addresses those questions by affirming that five principles of the Jewish faith can be inferred from the motion of the heavenly bodies as described in Psalm 19 and that the selfsame principles are found explicitly and more perfectly in the Torah.

But the Torah manifests that perfection even more forcefully and conclusively. The second specific principle of the faith is creation ex nihilo.

Such precision can be ascribed only to the creator. The heavens, however, are deficient in two respects. First, they have a propensity for misleading people into thinking that they themselves are divine.

The fifth and final principle is reward and punishment, which is indicated by the motion of the heavenly bodies, especially those changes in position and aspect that induce particular effects in the world.

The intellectual environment of today, however, calls such a parochial standard into question: The evaluative criteria of modern scholarship do not necessarily take precedence over the values of traditional interpretation. In recent years biblical scholars have been developing a new sensitivity to traditional commentary, seeking to appreciate it on its own terms.

His success should be determined according to the considerable elegance and ingenuity he displays in going about his task—in the density and suggestiveness of the interplay between his worldview and the language of the psalm, or, to put it another way, according to the extent to which his interpretive horizon appears perhaps unexpectedly to converge with that of the authoritative text.

Our ability to appreciate his achievement vindicates two millennia of diligent teaching and learning even as it enriches our understanding of the Psalms. Ashlag, Y. Sefer ha-zohar al tehillim [The Zohar on Psalms]. Bnei Brak, Israel: Ateret Shelomo. Find this resource:.

Attridge, H. Fassler, eds. SBL Symposium Leiden: Brill. Auwers, J. The Biblical Canons. BETL Leuven, Belgium: Peeters. Braude, W. The Midrash on Psalms. Yale Judaica Series Pesikta Rabbati.

Exegesis In The Targum Of The Psalms

Psalms , book of the Old Testament composed of sacred songs, or of sacred poems meant to be sung. In the Hebrew Bible , Psalms begins the third and last section of the biblical canon, known as the Writings Hebrew Ketuvim. In the original Hebrew text the book as a whole was not named, although the titles of many individual psalms contained the word mizmor, meaning a poem sung to the accompaniment of a stringed instrument. The Greek translation of this term, psalmos, is the basis for the collective title Psalmoi found in most manuscripts, from which the English name Psalms is derived. In its present form, the book of Psalms consists of poems divided into five books 1—41, 42—72, 73—89, 90—, — , the first four of which are marked off by concluding doxologies.

The Book of Psalms is divided into five sections, each closing with a doxology i. Many psalms of the have individual superscriptions titles , ranging from lengthy comments to a single word. Over a third appear to be musical directions, addressed to the "leader" or "choirmaster", including such statements as "with stringed instruments" and "according to lilies". Others appear to be references to types of musical composition, such as "A psalm" and "Song", or directions regarding the occasion for using the psalm "On the dedication of the temple", "For the memorial offering", etc. Many carry the names of individuals, the most common 73 psalms—75 if including the two Psalms attributed by the New Testament to David being of David , and thirteen of these relate explicitly to incidents in the king's life. The Septuagint also attributes several Psalms like and to Ezekiel and Jeremiah. Psalms are usually identified by a sequence number, often preceded by the abbreviation "Ps.

In short, the poets in this ancient anthology give voice to sentiments we all share and seek to express at one time or another in our lives. The Book of Psalms is among the most popular and widely read of all the books of the Hebrew Bible. Many sections of the siddur, or prayer book , include whole psalms or selected verses. In times of trouble, traditional Jewish communities have turned to the recitation of psalms — often the entire book — as a prayerful response. Beyond its role in liturgy and in Jewish healing efforts, many readers have turned to individual psalms for solace or inspiration. To express joy and wonder at the created world, for example, nothing beats Psalm 8, which includes this observation:. When I behold Your heavens, the work of Your fingers, the moon and the stars that You set in place what is man that you have been mindful of him, mortal man that you have taken note of him?

Psalms, Modern Hebrew Bible, PDF for download

The Old, the New and the Rewritten is the first book-length study focusing on the Targum of Psalms in more than 50 years. Edwards focuses on the exegetical aspects of the Targum through a detailed study of fifteen psalms and examines how the Targum relates to other Jewish and Christian exegetical traditions that have drawn upon the book of Psalms. This volume illustrates how Targum Psalms creatively interprets selected psalms and how those interpretations relate to other Jewish and Christian traditions, including early translations of the psalms, rabbinic Midrashim, the New Testament and early Church Fathers. The study of these Psalms suggests viewing Targum Psalms as a creative partner in the world of biblical interpretation, as. This work provides the first translation into English of the Targum of Psalms, together with an introduction, a critical apparatus listing variants from several manuscripts and their printed editions, and annotations..

JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. View Usage Statistics. Metadata Show full item record. Citation Kurtz, P.

The Psalms play numerous roles in the religious life of the Jews, but occupy an ambivalent place in the Jewish curriculum. Jewish commentary on the Psalms occurred in four phases: inner-biblical indications of developing interpretive strategies, rabbinic commentaries, standard medieval commentaries, and late medieval and early modern commentaries 14th—18th centuries. This article presents case studies to highlight trends in Jewish commentary based on the abovementioned phases, along with reference to relevant scholarship. It looks at two aspects of the book: the attribution of authorship to King David and the selection and ordering of the psalms into the canonical collection of

The Psalms in Jewish Liturgy

АНБ поручили разыскать отправителя. Хотя агентство имело возможность потребовать от переадресующей компании открыть ему имя этого клиента, оно решило прибегнуть к более изощренному методу - следящему устройству. Фактически Сьюзан создала программу-маяк направленного действия, замаскированный под элемент электронной почты. Она отправляла его на фиктивный адрес этого клиента, и переадресующая компания, выполняя свои договорные обязательства, пересылала этот маяк на подлинный адрес. Попав по назначению, программа фиксировала свое местонахождение в Интернете и передавала его в АНБ, после чего бесследно уничтожала маяк.

В голове у него не было ни единой мысли - полная пустота. Он не знал ни где он находится, ни кто его преследует и мчался, подгоняемый инстинктом самосохранения. Он не чувствовал никакой боли - один лишь страх. Пуля ударила в кафельную плитку азульехо чуть сзади. Осколки посыпались вниз и попали ему в шею. Беккер рванулся влево, в другую улочку. Он слышал собственный крик о помощи, но, кроме стука ботинок сзади и учащенного дыхания, утренняя тишина не нарушалась ничем.

Psalm 23 In Hebrew Pdf

 Коммандер! - позвала Сьюзан. Ответа не последовало.

Вскоре слава о фугуся-кисай, гениальном калеке, облетела Токио. Со временем Танкадо прочитал о Пёрл-Харборе и военных преступлениях японцев. Ненависть к Америке постепенно стихала. Он стал истовым буддистом и забыл детские клятвы о мести; умение прощать было единственным путем, ведущим к просветлению. К двадцати годам Энсей Танкадо стал своего рода культовой фигурой, представителем программистского андеграунда.

Ну что еще? - застонал.  - Хочет предъявить мне обвинение во вторжении в личную жизнь. Девушка волокла за собой туристскую сумку. Подойдя к нему, она на этот раз расплылась в широкой улыбке. - Простите, что я на вас накричала.

Some Aspects of Traditional Jewish Psalms Interpretation

Халохот какое-то время наблюдал за происходящим, потом скрылся за деревьями, по-видимому, выжидая. - Сейчас произойдет передача, - предупредил Смит.  - В первый раз мы этого не заметили.

Именно здесь вирус мог бы причинить наибольший ущерб, и именно здесь Джабба проводил большую часть времени. Однако в данный момент у него был перерыв и он поглощал пирог с сыром и перцем в круглосуточной столовой АНБ. Джабба собирался взять третий кусок, когда зазвонил мобильный телефон.

A Jewish Historical-Critical Commentary on Psalms: Psalm 114 as an Example

Спокойно. Он оглядел пустой зал.


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Hebrew Bible and Ancient Israel 4 Current Directions in Interpreting the Book of Psalms Volume 5 Manfred Oeming Editorial. Wer lüftet das Geheimnis?

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