File Name: development and management of visitor attractions .zip
Hence, we are including articles written in both languages, English and Spanish, broadening our scope to a larger audience. The Journal of Economics Finance and Administrative Science aims to provide the most relevant research and current developments in all the fields of the administrative sciences worldwide. In order to accomplish our purpose, the articles go through a rigorous process of evaluation and selection, according to international editorial conventions.
The Universidad ESAN, with more than 50 years of experience in the higher education field and post graduate studies, desires to contribute to the academic community with the most outstanding pieces of research. We gratefully welcome suggestions and contributions from our readers in order to help us hit our goals. SRJ is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same.
SJR uses a similar algorithm as the Google page rank; it provides a quantitative and qualitative measure of the journal's impact. Tourism is vital to the economy of a country and sustainable tourism development requires an understanding of the complex interrelationships and interactions among a multitude of environmental factors and interdisciplinary forces that play a critical role in tourism development.
While overall the field of tourism has been abundantly researched, there are certain areas where there is a paucity of research, namely, competition analysis, branding and positioning.
Our research contributes to this extremely important but relatively less researched subject. Specifically, we study the relationship between destination development and its brand image. We develop a conceptual model which identifies various constructs, processes and linkages involved in the relationship between destination development and its brand image.
In developing this model we draw upon the interdisciplinary nature of tourism and discuss a variety of influences, such as, economic, social, cultural, political and psychological factors.. Tourism development draws upon a multitude of disciplines and subject areas such as anthropology, business, communication, cultural, economics, geography, history, hospitality, politics, psychology, retailing, sociology, and transportation etc. The international and interdisciplinary nature of the field of tourism is well recognized by academics, professionals and policy makers.
A testimony to this is the publication Tourism: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal , the first issue of which was published as early as in Zagreb, Croatia. The journal Tourism has been published in English language since Vrdoljak-Salamon and Corak carried out a content analysis of the research articles published in the journal Tourism for the period The authors note that there were 20 special issues of this journal during However in their content analysis, the articles from the special issues were not included in order to assess the trends in the field independent of special issues.
A total of articles excluding articles in special issues were classified by the authors in 9 categories. It should be noted that an article could be listed in multiple categories depending upon its scope and coverage. The analysis of the authors reveals the following 9 subject areas number of articles under each subject area : tourism theory, research, education, and human resources 35 , tourism and economy 72 , tourism and market 62 , tourism and society 56 , tourism and space 41 , tourism policy and organization 19 , registration and forecasting in tourism 8 , types of tourism 84 , and miscellaneous 6.
This content analysis covered contributions from 51 different countries on the six continents excluding Antarctica. The above analysis indicates that the journal and the field of tourism are truly international and interdisciplinary. The tourism industry, which benefits transportation, accommodation, catering, entertainment, and retailing sectors, has been blooming in the past few decades.
Tourism has been a critical factor in the economic development strategy of many countries Lea, and tourist destinations. Its secondary resources are then those developments brought in especial for tourists, such as catering, accommodation, transport and activities. In their study of 10 European countries, Manrai and Manrai identified three broad dimensions differentiating the tourism potential of these 10 countries. Several researchers have conducted studies on the relationship between tourism planning and development, visitor satisfaction, host perception Tang, and psychology of tourist experience Larsen, Destination marketing and management is one of the major concerns of any country or any region or destination in any part of the world.
The nature of the destination, resources available, hosts, the visitor's behavior and experiences and management of tourism resources optimally are extremely important research topics today. Under the tourism and market category identified by Vrdoljak-Salamon and Corak , a total of 62 articles were included.
The main focus seems to be on destination 21 articles followed by tourist demand 16 articles. The other subject areas under this category and number of articles include marketing in tourism 8 , market research 7 , tourism and prices 4 , competitiveness 4 , and tourist expenditure 2. Destination is the product which the stakeholders in the tourism industry try to market to their customers, namely tourists. Considering the global economy we live in today, the competition for tourist expenditures is fierce and tourism marketers resort to a variety of marketing mix strategies including destination product development, pricing, promotion and distribution including access to the destination and information about it.
Tourism marketers have to compete against companies worldwide who are also trying to attract the tourists to visit their respective destination product. The study of tourism competition is thus an extremely important subject. Yet this particular subject area has received relatively less attention from the researchers as is evident from the above analysis of research on various topics under the tourism and market category. Our research deals with this important yet relatively less researched subject of tourism competitiveness.
Specifically we study the role the destination development plays in building a brand image for the destination which is a critical tool for establishing competitive advantage. The objective of our research is to review the literature and develop a conceptual model capturing key constructs, linkages and processes involved in the relationship between tourist destination development and the brand image of the tourist destination. The conceptual model is given in Figure 1 and discussed below. The development of a destination can be characterized by the phases it goes through Laws, In the first sub-phase, the destination is visited and experienced mainly for the purpose of visiting friends and relatives, or for business.
The destination developers and marketers try to anticipate the needs and desires of the tourists and accordingly come up with tourism products and services to satisfy these needs. Furthermore, local government faces an increasing and changing resident population as tourism potential of the destination attracts managers and employees for the newly created job opportunities.
This arrival of new residents leads to alterations in the original tourist-community relationship and may cause frictions with the local job-seeking people. This overall change in the nature of the destination may signify that it will attract different types of visitors at the different development phases Laws, Clarke and Godfrey also used a three-step scheme to follow for tourism development: first the marketers and developers have to find out what tourism resources are present in the destination, than the type of tourists they want to attract has to be identified and finally the marketers and developers have to decide how to reach the targeted tourists and achieve the desired result.
Similarly, Goeldner, Mcintosh, and Ritchie divided the process of tourism policy formulation in four phases: a definitional, an analytical, an operational and an implementation phase. This description highlights the fact that when putting destination development into practice, one should acknowledge that development is a multidimensional concept. Consequently, destination developers should not only consider the economic aspects of tourism, but also attempt to match it with all other social, political and cultural dimensions.
In order to become an attractive destination, the destination's infrastructure and the tourism facilities need to be improved.
In addition, investment and staff recruitment and training decisions are also critical for the development of a destination. Furthermore, tourism marketers and developers need to promote their destination in order to create an image that attracts the targeted segments of visitors Laws, Baloglu and McCleary found that the greater the variety of information sources used to advertise the destination, the more positive is the contribution to the shaped image.
The same authors also point out that word-of-mouth recommendations are the primary source in forming the destination image; consequently, offering a satisfying experience to the tourist is of great importance. Due to the globalization around the world the tourist destinations are also becoming highly competitive. The existing body of research has imparted knowledge to us on tourist or visitor behavior as well as the use of tourist experience as a marketing tool.
However, the concept lacks a common understanding and agreement since it is specific to a situation and setting. In tourism and hospitality industry, the construct of tourist experience has been typically approached by service providers, destination marketers and organization to design and create experiences for consumers in order to make their experience memorable and get their intention to revisit a particular destination.
Tourism marketers now develop the products, services keeping in mind consumer satisfaction and build a unique brand image or identity differentiating their tourism products from competitors. In tourism industry, the destination can thus be viewed as a product.
Tourists flocked to the bridges of Madison County in rural Iowa to immerse, at least temporarily, in the romantic fantasy involving the film's two lovers more than to see the actual details of the bridge.
Experience has served as a key construct in travel and tourism research as well as destination positioning. Central to McConnell's concept of tourist experience, is the tourist's quest for an authentic experience and tourism destinations are viewed as a means to stage the authenticity that cannot be found in the tourist's daily life.
Searching for self identity as a tourist was an early classification criterion in the phenomenology of tourist experiences Cohen, Destination brands generally generate sets of quality expectations or images of the destination that individuals usually desire prior to consumption Metelka, and in either positive or negative word of mouth post consumption.
Tourist destination brand image is a function of tourist image resulting from their own experience and destination image promoted by the marketers. The brand image is developed largely from marketing stimuli provided by formal marketing communication tools and development for the particular destination. The above conceptual model depicts the interdisciplinary forces at play in the relationship between tourist destination development and its brand image. First of all tourist destination development is a function of natural and cultural resources the destination is endowed with, its history and heritage, as well as the political and legal system of the country, which could positively or negatively influence the development of a destination including the infrastructure.
Tourism and economic development have reciprocity in their relationship, with each influencing the other overall favorably. This is not to say that all the consequences of tourism on economy are positive. Marzuki identifies various positive as well as negative economic impacts of tourism but overall concludes that the economic benefits of tourism are greater than its economic costs. An earlier study by Ritchie identifies positive as well as negative impacts of tourism on the cultural, economic, physical, political, psychological, and social dimensions.
The point is that tourism has both positive and negative repercussions on a variety of areas. The question therefore is keeping in mind these multidisciplinary impacts of tourism, how can a marketer help increase the positive impacts and minimize the negative ones. The task of tourism marketers therefore is not simply to build a brand image to attract tourists but to improve the sustainability of tourism.
Tourism marketing therefore needs to be carried out keeping in mind the long term consequences of tourism on various dimensions as identified in Ritchie This is not an easy task and requires an understanding of the processes and influences which are responsible for formation of the destination brand image.
In the Conceptual Model Figure 1 developed in our research we identify three components of the Tourist destination brand image corresponding to the three stages of consumption. These are Pre-consumption stage, During-consumption stage, and Post-consumption stage. In the pre-consumption stage, the brand image results from the marketing communications promoting destination characteristics to the tourists by the tourism industry stakeholders as well as from the positive or negative word of mouth the tourists receive from other travelers.
Social influences therefore are important in the pre-consumption stage in formation of the brand image along with the marketing communications.
An understanding of the psychological processes involved in forming tourist perceptions of the destination is therefore very relevant for development of destination image. Their post-consumption responses form the third component of the destination brand image.
Each of these three components of Tourist destination brand image is relevant for all the stakeholders in the tourism industry. The development of the tourist destinations should be carried out such that it creates a memorable tourist experience and a favorable brand image which in turn will result in positive word of mouth and repeat business for a particular tourist destination and at the same time improves the sustainability of tourist destination.
Please contact Dr. Manhas at or Tel. Lalita Manrai and Dr. Inicio Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science Role of tourist destination development in building its brand image: A conceptua ISSN: Discontinued publication For more information click here.
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Hence, we are including articles written in both languages, English and Spanish, broadening our scope to a larger audience. The Journal of Economics Finance and Administrative Science aims to provide the most relevant research and current developments in all the fields of the administrative sciences worldwide. In order to accomplish our purpose, the articles go through a rigorous process of evaluation and selection, according to international editorial conventions. The Universidad ESAN, with more than 50 years of experience in the higher education field and post graduate studies, desires to contribute to the academic community with the most outstanding pieces of research. We gratefully welcome suggestions and contributions from our readers in order to help us hit our goals. SRJ is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same.
Untuk penulis yang ingin mengirimkan artikel, harap gunakan template standar kami yang bisa di- download dari link di bawah ini:. Atembe, Roland and Akbar, Bilal ANU E Press. Bugbog Travel Guides and Photos Java: Borobudur, Indonesia. Taman Wisata Candi Borobudur Borobudur History.
'The Development and Management of Visitor Attractions' 2nd Edition, covers every aspect of the process of developing and managing different kinds of attractions.
A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or an exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement. Places of natural beauty such as beaches , tropical island resorts , national parks , mountains , deserts and forests , are examples of traditional tourist attractions which people may visit. Cultural tourist attractions can include historical places, monuments , ancient temples , zoos , aquaria , museums and art galleries , botanical gardens , buildings and structures such as forts , castles , libraries , former prisons , skyscrapers , bridges , theme parks and carnivals , living history museums , public art sculptures , statues , murals , ethnic enclave communities, historic trains and cultural events. Factory tours, industrial heritage, creative art and crafts workshops are the object of cultural niches like industrial tourism and creative tourism.
Sustainable tourism is the tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic , social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and host communities. It can be related to travel for leisure, business and what is called VFR visiting friends and relatives. Global tourism accounts for c. A report by the United Nations World Tourism Organization found that though some countries and sectors in the industry are creating initiatives for tourism in addressing the SDGs, knowledge sharing, finance and policy for sustainable tourism are not fully addressing the needs of stakeholders.
Вначале он хотел выстрелить Беккеру в голову, но, будучи профессионалом, решил не рисковать. Целясь в торс, он сводил к минимуму возможность промаха в вертикальной и горизонтальной плоскостях. Эта тактика себя оправдала. Хотя в последнее мгновение Беккер увернулся, Халохот сумел все же его зацепить.
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Visitor attractions constitute the essence of the tourism phenomenon.