File Name: interaction of x rays with matter .zip
An X-ray , or X-radiation , is a penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation. X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays.
On reaching a material, some of the x-rays will be absorbed, and some scattered — if neither process occurs, the X-Rays will be transmitted through the material. When absorption occurs, the X-Rays interact with the material at the atomic level, and can cause subsequent fluorescence — it is this X-Ray Fluorescence which forms the basis of XRF spectroscopy, and the process is discussed in more detail in the next section. This scattering can occur both with and without loss of energy, called Compton and Rayleigh scattering respectively. Site search Search keyword s : Search. X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis.
Compton scattering , discovered by Arthur Holly Compton , is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron. If it results in a decrease in energy increase in wavelength of the photon which may be an X-ray or gamma ray photon , it is called the Compton effect. Part of the energy of the photon is transferred to the recoiling electron. Inverse Compton scattering occurs when a charged particle transfers part of its energy to a photon. Compton scattering is an example of inelastic scattering  of light by a free charged particle, where the wavelength of the scattered light is different from that of the incident radiation. In Compton's original experiment see Fig. The amount by which the light's wavelength changes is called the Compton shift.
X-radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation, the wavelength of which is in the range of 0. X-rays with wavelengths longer than 0. The wavelength range of the gamma rays partly overlaps with that of the X-rays. The two types of radiation are distinguished by the source: X-rays are created by interactions between electrons and atoms or between charged particles and an electromagnetic field, while gamma radiation is the electromagnetic radiation generated during nuclear transformations. During the electromagnetic interaction between the atoms and the electrons the electrons slow down and X-rays are emitted.
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The mechanism of the ionizing radiation interaction with matter is described for heavy charged particles, electrons and photons. Those effects causing energy loss of the radiation with sequential effects of absorption or attenuation are presented. The features of some characteristic detector systems with the relative electronics and the data acquisition system DAQ are presented. Those detectors are related with the medical imaging sensor systems.
Free radicals formed by high-energy radiation in solids can then be identified by analysis of their EPR spectra. Ionizing Radiation Effects and Applications. The interaction of ionized radiation with matter brings some changes in matter. These changes are called the radical or the radiation damage centers. Among the methods of radical formation in matter structure, ionizing radiation plays an important role. In addition to ionizing radiation, the chemical reactions and the thermal effects can also lead to radical formation. There are three different applications for radical formation: irradiation photolysis and radiolysis ,.
In this volume we discuss the various types of radiation interaction with matter. The radiations of primary concern in this special volume originate in atomic or nucleus processes. They are conventionally categorized into four general types as follows:. Fast electron includes beta particles positive and negative emitted in nuclear decay, as well as energetic electrons produced by any other process. Heavy charged particles denote a category that encompasses all energetic ions mass of one atomic unit or greater, such as alpha particles, proton, and fission products of many nuclear reactions. The electromagnetic radiation of interest includes x-rays emitted in rearrangement of electron shell of atom and gamma rays that originate from transitions within the nucleus itself. Neutrons generated in various nuclear processes constitute the final major category, which is often further divided into slow and fast neutron subcategories.
Skip to main navigation Skip to Content. The particles emitted carry energy proportional to their mass and speed. The photons carry energy proportional to their frequency. The photons and the particles interact with the surrounding matter. This interaction depends on their type alpha, beta, gamma, neutrons, etc. Alpha trajectories can be deviated by both electric and magnetic fields. The major energy loss mechanism for alpha particles is electronic excitation and ionization.
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